The Day Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler Appeared at Cape Nanhui, Shanghai

by Craig Brelsford
Founder, shanghaibirding.com

Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler at Cape Nanhui is one of the best sightings of my birding career. Ours is the only record on eBird of the species at Shanghai’s top birding spot. Elaine Du, Kai Pflug, and I were in the defunct wetland reserve. The Middendorf’s was at the base of reeds along a canal. We observed the bird for several minutes. The date was 21 May 2015.

The specimen above is clearly a Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler Helopsaltes ochotensis and not either of its two most similar congeners: the less contrastingly patterned Styan’s Grasshopper Warbler H. pleskei and the more contrasting Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler H. certhiola. Nor is it the heavily streaked Marsh Grassbird H. pryeri.

Our team was delighted with the find, for Middendorf’s on migration is an elusive tick. There is, however, evidence that Shanghai is a place of some importance on the migration route and that enterprising birders can find the species here. La Touche in 1912 reported Middendorf’s as being common in late May and early June on Shaweishan, near Chongming Island (Kennerley & Pearson 2010, 261). On its spring migration, Middendorf’s follows a north to northeast heading from the Philippines, its main wintering grounds, to the breeding areas in Hokkaido, the Kurils, Sakhalin, and the mainland Russian Far East. Many go due north from Luzon to Taiwan before making the northeastward turn toward Japan. Some continue still farther due north from Taiwan, crossing the East China Sea and making landfall at the first part of mainland Asia they hit, namely the eastern bulge of China around Shanghai (261).

Shanghai not only is a likely part of the migration route of Middendorf’s; it is possibly also the very best place on the Chinese coast where migrating Middendorf’s may be found. As springtime records of Middendorf’s in north China are scarce, experts presume that most Middendorf’s that reach the central Chinese coast migrate not northward but northeastward, again crossing the East China Sea to Japan. Note too that south of Shanghai, for example in Guangdong and Hong Kong, records of Middendorf’s also are few (Kennerley & Pearson 2010, 261; eBird 2020).

Our Middendorf’s was silent, but some call, and Shanghai birders hoping to tick the species should be listening carefully in late May. “[The call of Middendorf’s] is often the only indication of presence away from the breeding areas,” write Kennerley and Pearson (2010, 259). Care needs to be taken to distinguish the “kit” or “chit” call of Middendorf’s from the similar call of Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler, which is known to call and even sing on migration in Shanghai (Brelsford 2017). Distinguishing the call and song of Middendorf’s and Pallas’s can be difficult, even for expert birders (Moores 2018).

In summary, I believe that the records of La Touche from more than a century ago were accurate and that in certain coastal areas in Shanghai, Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler was a common late-spring migrant. I believe furthermore that despite the massive transformation of the Shanghai coast since the time of La Touche, Middendorf’s may still be common in late May and early June at places such as Cape Nanhui and Chongming Dongtan. Birders should be on the lookout for Middendorf’s in Shanghai.

MAP & PHOTOS

middendorf-map
Map showing major migration patterns of Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler in spring. From its wintering areas mainly in the Philippines, Middendorf’s moves north into Taiwan (Arrow 1), where winter records of the species also are numerous (eBird 2020). Some Middendorf’s may bypass Taiwan and head northeastward through the Ryukyus to the main Japanese islands (2). From Taiwan many Middendorf’s head northeast to Japan (3), while some continue northward and reach mainland Asia near Shanghai (4). Middendorf’s that reach the Shanghai region presumably migrate northeastward, crossing the East China Sea to Japan (5). In Japan they traverse Honshu (6, 7) en route to the breeding grounds in Hokkaido and the Russian Far East. Red dots indicate areas in the Shanghai region where Middendorf’s has been recorded on eBird (includes autumn records). Data for this illustration from Kennerley and Pearson 2010, pp. 260-1; Brazil 2018, p. 304; and eBird. (Google/Craig Brelsford)
Middendorf's Grasshopper Warbler
On 21 May 2015, this Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler appeared at Shanghai’s Cape Nanhui. Elaine Du, Kai Pflug, and Craig Brelsford found the warbler at the edge of a reedbed in the defunct nature reserve. The coordinates of the spot are 30.915306, 121.967074. The encounter with the elusive migrant remains the sole record on eBird of Middendorf’s at Shanghai’s top birding spot. (Craig Brelsford)
Middendorf's Grasshopper Warbler
Migrating Middendorf’s are often found ‘in reedbeds and along riverbanks’ (Kennerley and Pearson 2010, 259). This individual was treading carefully along the edge of a canal, in conformity with the authors’ description. In spring Middendorf’s departs the winter quarters late and performs ‘a rapid northward migration with a limited number of stopover points’ (261). This individual may have flown nonstop from Taiwan, crossing the East China Sea and making landfall around Shanghai. (Craig Brelsford)

SOUND-RECORDING

Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler, Verkhoturova Island, Russia (59.593602, 164.674460). Song with element of call at beginning. Recorded 27 June in lowland grassland/tussocky tundra near northernmost extension of breeding range. (0:29; 683 KB; Christoph Zöckler)

RESOURCES ON HELOPSALTES AND LOCUSTELLA WARBLERS

Click the links below for coverage on shanghaibirding.com of locustellid warblers.

Gray’s Grasshopper Warbler Helopsaltes fasciolatus
Marsh Grassbird H. pryeri
Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler H. certhiola
Lanceolated Warbler Locustella lanceolata
Brown Bush Warbler L. luteoventris
Baikal Bush Warbler L. davidi
Spotted Bush Warbler L. thoracica

OTHER LATE SPRING MIGRANTS IN SHANGHAI

In addition to Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler, late spring brings passage migrants such as these to Shanghai:

Kamchatka Leaf Warbler recorded at Shanghai’s Cape Nanhui in June

Pechora Pipit singing at Cape Nanhui in May

— Scarce migrant and regional breeder Asian Koel recorded in May and June, singing Common Cuckoo breeding at Cape Nanhui, and singing Lesser Cuckoo in Jiangsu: The Cuckoos of Shanghai

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brazil, Mark (2009). Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Brazil, Mark (2018). Birds of Japan. Helm Field Guides, London.

Brelsford, C. (2017). “One of My All-time Ornithological Highlights” (https://www.shanghaibirding.com/all-time-high/). Post to shanghaibirding.com, published 17 May 2017; scroll down for report and sound-recording of singing Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler at Cape Nanhui, Shanghai (accessed: 25 May 2020).

eBird (2020). eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler in China (https://ebird.org/species/migwar/CN) and Taiwan (https://ebird.org/species/migwar/TW). Accessed: 27 Apr 2020.

Kennerley, P. & Pearson, D. (2010). Reed and Bush Warblers. London: Christopher Helm.

MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps (2000). A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press.

Moores, N. (2018). eBird Checklist: https://ebird.org/checklist/S53240665. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Ithaca, New York. See note under entry for Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler: “Heard only – listed as Possible as confusion with Pallas’s Grasshopper a decent possibilty” (sic). (Accessed: 27 Apr 2020)

Pearson, D.P. (2006). Family Sylviidae (Old World Warblers). P. 615 (Middendorf’s Warbler) in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D.A. eds. (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 11. Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

REVISIONS

1. Sound-recording of Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler by Christoph Zöckler added 28 April 2020.

Featured image: Middendorf’s Grasshopper Warbler Helopsaltes ochotensis, Cape Nanhui, Shanghai. (Craig Brelsford)
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The Waxwings of Shanghai

Japanese Waxwing
For many birders in Shanghai, Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica is an unexpected and welcome tick. The species is recorded most frequently at Pudong’s Binjiang Forest Park, where I photographed this individual. Gain familiarity with waxwings by reading this post. (Craig Brelsford)

by Craig Brelsford
Founder, shanghaibirding.com

Shanghai birders record Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica and Bohemian Waxwing B. garrulus centralasiae irregularly in the urban parks, on the coast, and in suburban western Shanghai. Japanese Waxwing is reported nearly three times as often in Shanghai as Bohemian. Binjiang Forest Park in Pudong has both the most records and the largest recorded flocks, with counts as high as 40. Century Park is second to Binjiang in the number of records. Cape Nanhui has records of both species, all of individuals and small groups. Nearly all waxwing sightings in Shanghai occur between November and February. There are a handful of records from March, April, and May (eBird 2020).

I have noted Japanese Waxwing in November, December, and January at Binjiang and in January on Chongming Island. Bohemian Waxwing were mixed in with the flocks I saw of Japanese at Binjiang. I also have a record of a single Bohemian Waxwing on Lesser Yangshan Island in November.

Improve your chances of ticking waxwings in Shanghai by reading the species descriptions below and studying the photos.

JAPANESE WAXWING

Japanese Waxwing
Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica devouring a berry, Binjiang Forest Park, December. In winter, waxwings subsist almost entirely on berries. The fruit is usually swallowed whole, but occasionally, as above, the waxwing fails to loosen the berry from the stem and must peck it. (Craig Brelsford)
Waxwing Tails
The color of the tail-tip is the readiest differentiator between Bohemian Waxwing (top) and Japanese Waxwing (bottom). Note also the black subterminal bands, narrower in Japanese. (Craig Brelsford)

Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica is an irregular winter visitor and passage migrant in Shanghai. Breeds nearly exclusively in Russian Far East (E Yakutia, Amur, Khabarovsk, N Sakhalin). In China is irregular breeder in Lesser Khingan Mountains in Heilongjiang. Does not breed in Japan. Winters mainly eastern China, also Korea and Japan. More irregular south of Yangtze, but reported as far south as Fujian and Yunnan and as far west as Qinghai. BEHAVIOR In winter almost entirely frugivorous and almost always in flocks. Mixed flocks often contain Bohemian Waxwing. DESCRIPTION Thick neck and short tail give plump appearance. Has narrow black mask, from eye extending upward below crest, giving angry facial expression; eyeline meets on forehead and (unlike in Bohemian) connects at rear of crest. Black bib (clear-cut in male, more diffuse in female); white at lower base of bill and part of eye-ring (below rear part of eye). Forehead and malar cinnamon-brown, rest of head buff, turning greyish-brown on nape, mantle, and wing coverts; lower back, rump and uppertail coverts grey. Tail grey at base, with black subterminal band and red tip. Underparts pale greyish-brown, with varying amount of pale yellow on belly. White between and behind legs; vent and undertail coverts dull orange, but sometimes remarkably crimson. Has red band on greater coverts that in flight appears as small wing bar. Primary coverts blue-grey with broad black tips; secondaries grey with black subterminal band and red tips (but no red appendages, as on Bohemian). Primaries edged blue-grey on sides; the edging together with blue-grey on primary coverts and secondaries make wing look more blue-grey than black. Adult primaries tipped white (with red dots on a few outer webs), making “V” markings on closed wing (markings on outer web longer in Bohemian, making a connected line). Females have thinner V’s, and juveniles lack white on inner webs, having instead of “V” markings a white line along edge of folded wing. COMPARISON Easily distinguished from Bohemian by red terminal band on tail. Smaller and slimmer than Bohemian, and swept-back, pointed crest shorter than Bohemian. Wing pattern also different; Japanese lacks white and yellow in secondaries and wing coverts, instead having red band on median coverts, and broad black tips to grey greater coverts and primary coverts. Bohemian lacks yellow belly spot. BARE PARTS Bill short, black; strong feet black; iris brown. VOICE Pleasant trills, often delivered in flight, shorter, higher-pitched and less ringing than Bohemian. — Craig Brelsford

BOHEMIAN WAXWING

Bohemian Waxwing
Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus, Binjiang Forest Park, November. Bohemian Waxwing is the widest-ranging of the world’s three waxwing species, with a distribution encompassing northern Eurasia and North America. (Craig Brelsford)
waxwing heads
The black masks of Japanese Waxwing (top) and Bohemian Waxwing (bottom) lend both species an ‘angry’ expression. Bohemian has a longer crest and a shorter eyeline that does not extend to the hindcrown. (Craig Brelsford)

Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus centralasiae is an unpredictable and irruptive winter visitor to most of China north of the Yangtze and as far west as Qinghai and Xinjiang; sporadically to southern China and Taiwan. In Shanghai, reported about a third as often as Japanese Waxwing. BEHAVIOR In winter among most frugivorous of birds. Mostly insectivorous in summer, catching insects in aerial flights. Non-breeding usually in flocks, flying quickly and in tight formation, like starlings. DESCRIPTION Starling-sized, mainly buffy and greyish-brown, with long, swept-back, pointed crest and distinctive markings on wing. Thick neck and short tail give plump appearance. Has narrow black mask, from eye extending upwards below crest, giving angry facial expression; black meets on forehead but, unlike in Japanese, not on hindcrown. Black bib (clear cut in male, slightly more diffuse in female); white at lower base of bill and part of eye-ring. Forehead and malar cinnamon-brown, rest of head buff, turning greyish-brown on nape, mantle, and wing coverts; lower back, rump and uppertail coverts grey; tail grey at base, then black with broad yellow terminal band (narrower and paler in first-winter female). Underparts pale buffish-grey (palest on belly); deep rusty vent and undertail coverts. Primaries, primary coverts, and secondaries black with broad white tips to primary coverts and secondaries forming two bars; inner secondaries tipped with wax-like red appendages, most extensive in adult males and faint in first-winter females. Adult primaries tipped white on inner webs and yellow on outer webs (whiter towards wing tip), making “V” markings on closed wing; females have thinner V’s; juveniles lack white on inner webs and have less yellow, so instead of “V” markings have a mostly white line along edge of folded wing. COMPARISON Easily distinguished from smaller and more slender Japanese by yellow terminal band on tail (red on Japanese). Bohemian has longer crest and deeper chestnut vent and undertail coverts and lacks yellow spot on belly. BARE PARTS Bill short, black; strong feet black; iris brown. VOICE In winter, soft, ringing trills, often given in flight. — Craig Brelsford

PHOTOS

Waxwing Bellies
Japanese Waxwing (L) has a yellow spot on the central belly. In Bohemian (R) the belly is a more uniform buffish-grey. (Craig Brelsford)
Waxwing Wings
The secondaries of Bohemian Waxwing (R) have elongated and flattened red tips. These appendages resemble hardened droplets of wax and give the family its English name. In Japanese Waxwing (L) the secondaries are tipped bright red or pink. (Craig Brelsford)
Waxwing Flight
On fast-flying waxwings, note the yellow-and-white pattern on the wing of Bohemian (L) and the red scapular line and red-tipped secondaries of Japanese (R). (Craig Brelsford)
bohemian and japanese waxwing
Here is a scene typical of waxwings in Shanghai. A lone Bohemian Waxwing (C) is treated as one of the gang by the more numerous Japanese Waxwing. Smart birders in Shanghai scan closely each member of a flock of Japanese Waxwing, knowing that often a Bohemian will be mixed in. (Craig Brelsford)
Japanese Waxwing
Waxwings nearly always swallow berries whole, as here (Japanese) …
Bohemian Waxwing
… and here (Bohemian). (Craig Brelsford)
Waxwing Eating Berries
Waxwings go to great lengths to remove a berry from the stem. A Bohemian Waxwing twists its head powerfully to wrest the berry away (top). The unwanted parts fall (bottom L), and the berry is ready to eat (bottom R). (Craig Brelsford)
Japanese Waxwing
In winter waxwings alternate between feeding on berries, as here on Shanghai’s Chongming Island in January …
Japanese Waxwing
… and roosting on a nearby tree to digest their meal. (Craig Brelsford)
Japanese Waxwing
Of the world’s three species of waxwing, Japanese Waxwing has the most compact breeding range. The species breeds almost exclusively in the Russian Far East north of the 50th parallel and south of the tree line. The main wintering range of Japanese Waxwing is eastern China north of the Yangtze. In Shanghai, Japanese Waxwing is reported nearly three times as often as Bohemian (eBird 2020). (Craig Brelsford)
Bohemian Waxwing
This Bohemian Waxwing, photographed in November at Binjiang Forest Park, likely spent the summer in a boreal forest in Russia somewhere between the Ural Mountains and Kamchatka. The species is not known to breed in China. (Craig Brelsford)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Daniel Bengtsson served as chief ornithological consultant for my Photographic Field Guide to the Birds of China, which I am publishing in bits and pieces on this website, and from which the species descriptions above are drawn.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brazil, Mark (2009). Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Brazil, Mark (2018). Birds of Japan. Helm Field Guides, London.

eBird (2020). eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Waxwings in Shanghai (Japanese: https://ebird.org/species/japwax1/CN-31; Bohemian: https://ebird.org/species/bohwax/CN-31). Waxwings in China (Japanese: https://ebird.org/species/japwax1/CN; Bohemian: https://ebird.org/species/bohwax/CN). Accessed: 31 Mar 2020.

MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps (2000). A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press.

Mountjoy, D.J. (2005). Family Bombycillidae (Waxwings). Pp. 316-7 in del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D.A. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 10. Cuckooshrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Svensson, Lars, Killian Mullarney, & Dan Zetterström (2009). Collins Bird Guide: The Most Complete Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe. 2nd ed. HarperCollins, London.

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Birding Western Shanghai

by Steven Bonta
for shanghaibirding.com

Steven Bonta
Steven Bonta

Western Shanghai, especially the Qingpu and Songjiang districts, offers a birding experience highly different from that of coastal Shanghai. Some of the species in western Shanghai are rarely seen on the coast and are more typical of interior southeast China. Here, in remnant wetlands and wooded areas, can be found Brown-chested Jungle Flycatcher, Orange-bellied Leafbird, and Cotton Pygmy Goose. As a resident of Qingpu District living only a few kilometers from the borders of Jiangsu and Zhejiang, I have explored western Shanghai extensively. Read on to see what I have learned.

TIANMA MOUNTAIN

Tianma Mountain (31.058926, 121.141957) is part of a chain of low, forested hills in western Shanghai that includes nearby Sheshan (see below). Tianma has the best forest in Shanghai and, aside from Cape Nanhui, may be Shanghai’s most exciting birding locale. Unlike the wooded areas in the large urban parks, Tianma Mountain’s woods are pristine, with many large trees, heavy underbrush, and abundant habitat for birds. The mountain is about a kilometer from end to end, with a network of well-maintained trails, and is surrounded by a narrow road that is also very much worth birding. A couple of other smaller forested hills are adjacent to the main mountain, affording a nice wooded corridor for the birds to move about.

Because of its unique habitat and southwesterly location, Tianma has more potential than anywhere else in Shanghai for attracting birds typical of the forests of southeastern China. Brown-chested Jungle Flycatcher (which may breed at Tianma), Orange-bellied Leafbird, and Chestnut Bulbul have been found there; others no doubt await discovery. Birding the rice fields, canals, and secondary woods surrounding Tianma can also be rewarding. In a few hours, a good birder can easily find 30 to 40 species at Tianma and the adjacent countryside.

The best birding is on the mountain. Tianma has Shanghai’s best numbers of Silver-throated Bushtit and Black-throated Bushtit, both of which can normally be found in flocks there. Swinhoe’s White-eye are also abundant any time of year, and along with tits, bushtits, and leaf warblers, predominate in bird waves. In winter large numbers of Yellow-bellied Tit congregate here, and Hawfinch seem to be more reliable here than elsewhere in Shanghai (except for nearby Sheshan). Large numbers of thrushes, especially Dusky Thrush, Grey-backed Thrush, and White’s Thrush, also winter here, but, unlike at Century Park, they tend to congregate well off the main trails and may be hard to see. Tristram’s Bunting is another reliable winter resident. There is a small population of Red-billed Leiothrix. Another exciting and common bird at Tianma, especially in the wintertime, is Crested Goshawk. Both here and at Sheshan, these birds are often tame and approachable.

Early spring at Tianma Mountain can yield surprises, especially when the cherries are in bloom. At this time, significant numbers of Chestnut Bulbul, as well as a few Collared Finchbill, move into the area to feed. I have observed Orange-bellied Leafbird there at this time of year. The best place to find such birds is in the garden area inside the east gate and in the woods immediately surrounding it. Other birds present during migration are Ashy Minivet, Forest Wagtail, Speckled Piculet, and Grey-streaked Flycatcher.

The surrounding fields and canals can also be productive, since the entire area is comparatively rural. In the adjacent waterways and wetlands, I have found a surprising range of birds, among them Pied Kingfisher.

Tianma Mountain is best accessed by car or taxi. You will get the best results by hiking around and up the mountain. Exploring the small foot trails created to give access to the fire hydrants hidden among the trees will get you away from noisy groups on the main trails, and probably allow you to see birds too shy to be visible from well-trafficked areas.

SHESHAN

Sheshan (31.0954136, 121.1946608) is Tianma Mountain’s noisier, more touristy sibling. Located 6 km (4 mi.) northeast of Tianma, Sheshan (actually two separate mountains) is not as birdy as Tianma, but it can yield many nice birds, including Crested Goshawk (usually in the forests on the west side of the western hill, below the Catholic church and observatory; I have observed pairs of these birds at Sheshan, and they are frequently approachable). A large population of Red-billed Leiothrix makes this attractive species easy to spot on Sheshan, along with good numbers of Chinese Hwamei. The best birding is in the dense thickets around the Catholic shrine plaza and on the western side of the west hill. The east hill is also well-forested but seems to be less birdy. Sheshan is normally more crowded than Tianma, perhaps because it is more accessible and is free of charge.

DIANSHANHU SCENIC AREA

At the far western tip of Shanghai is a wooded peninsula jutting up along the western edge of Dianshan Lake. This is Dianshanhu Scenic Area (31.072524, 120.910850). The lake itself does not offer exceptional birdlife, except for large flocks of Whiskered Tern in the spring. But the wooded areas here, especially in the large garden and park area around the big pagoda (free admission), are worth a visit, especially in the spring. As at Tianma Mountain, Dianshanhu Scenic Area is usually buzzing with Swinhoe’s White-eye, and Black-throated Bushtit and Yellow-bellied Tit are common. Perhaps of greatest interest are the large numbers of Collared Finchbill that invade this spot from the west and south in the spring. When the cherries and other trees are in bloom, this bulbul, normally rare in Shanghai, can be found in appreciable numbers here. The heavily wooded islands nearby, accessible by a stepping-stone bridge, can yield other surprises. Like Tianma, Dianshanhu is not easily accessible. For birders living in downtown Shanghai without a car, the best route is to take Line 17 to Oriental Land (the last stop), and then go by taxi to Dianshanhu.

QINGXI COUNTRY PARK (DALIAN LAKE)

This is western Shanghai’s best wetland, but it is surprisingly difficult to access, and very crowded on weekends. Private vehicles are not allowed in the park, which means that birders must park outside and walk in (more than a kilometer to reach the lake). However, the park is clogged with beeping tour buses and tourist transport vehicles, as well as throngs of visitors. A large food concession area at the entrance caters to the park’s many visitors. Birders here should have a tolerance for noisy, distracting crowds. That said, Qingxi Country Park can be very rewarding. At the time of this writing, Dalian Lake is western Shanghai’s top eBird hotspot, and with good reason: the lake is relatively pristine and surrounded by some fairly well-protected wetlands. Cotton Pygmy Goose have been recorded here, as well as a nice range of waders, including Pheasant-tailed Jacana. Some daily tallies on eBird for this site exceed 50 species. But expect to do a lot of walking here! The best birding is often not on the lake itself but in the many wetlands surrounding it.

Western Shanghai is full of hidden surprises, pockets of wetland and woodland that have not yet been gobbled up by developers. For instance, only a few kilometers north of the bustling tourist town of Zhujiajiao in Qingpu District, the area around Shanhaiqiao Village features superb wetlands and remnant woodland patches that teem with birdlife, in a setting more reminiscent of rural interior China than urban Shanghai. A recent visit there by me netted 40 species, including several Eastern Buzzard, three Common Snipe, and a large variety of other waterbirds and passerines. Doubtless many more such spots await exploration in semi-rural western Shanghai.

PHOTOS

Tianma
Summit of Tianma Mountain. The hill in Songjiang District has the best forest in Shanghai. The rich habitat and southwesterly location attract birds typical of the forests of southeastern China, among them Brown-chested Jungle Flycatcher and Chestnut Bulbul. (Steven Bonta)
Tianma
Densely wooded slope of Tianma Mountain. Unlike the wooded areas in Shanghai’s urban parks, the woods of Tianma are pristine, with many large trees, heavy underbrush, and abundant bird habitat. (Steven Bonta)
shrines
Plaza with Catholic shrines, Sheshan. The dense woods around the shrines harbor Red-billed Leiothrix and in winter thrushes and Hawfinch. (Steven Bonta)
wetland
Western Shanghai’s best wetland, Qingxi Country Park offers well-protected wetlands such as this. Here, birders have recorded Cotton Pygmy Goose and Pheasant-tailed Jacana. (Steven Bonta)

Featured image: Birds of western Shanghai. Clockwise from L: Ashy Minivet Pericrocotus divaricatus, Brown-chested Jungle Flycatcher Cyornis brunneatus, Speckled Piculet Picumnus innominatus, Yellow-bellied Tit Pardaliparus venustulus, and Chestnut Bulbul Hemixos castanonotus. (Craig Brelsford)

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