Messengers

Editor’s note: In recent weeks, Shanghai has had extraordinary visits by three species of crane. Since 12 Nov. 2016, 3 Siberian Crane, a Critically Endangered species, have been recorded regularly in a reclaimed area of Hengsha Island (photo above, left). On 10 Dec. 2016, Endangered Red-crowned Crane made the first recorded visit by that species to Cape Nanhui (top right). Also since 12 Nov. 2016, Vulnerable Hooded Crane has been recorded regularly at Cape Nanhui (bottom right). Before 12 Nov., Hooded Crane had never been recorded on the Shanghai Peninsula. Photos by Craig Brelsford.

The appearance on 10 Dec. 2016 of 2 Red-crowned Crane at Pudong’s Cape Nanhui was more than just a historic, first-ever sighting. It was a message. The endangered cranes, as well as the Siberian Crane on Hengsha Island and Hooded Crane at Cape Nanhui, are telling us that habitat is steadily disappearing elsewhere along the Chinese coast, particularly in Jiangsu; that the habitats in Shanghai are some of the best that remain; and that those habitats require world-class protection. The most pressing need is the creation of a world-class, small to mid-sized wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui.

Siberian Crane, Hengsha, 7 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Siberian Crane in flight. Hengsha Island, 7 Dec. 2016 (Craig Brelsford)

Errant cranes migrating along the Chinese coast may once have settled for a while somewhere in Jiangsu. Every year, however, cranes migrating along the coast of that densely populated province find fewer and fewer places suitable to them. My wife Elaine Du and I have surveyed the Jiangsu coastline from Qidong on the Yangtze River 250 km north to Yancheng National Nature Reserve. We have seen with our own eyes the dramatic transformation of the Jiangsu coast. Even areas in Jiangsu receiving considerable international attention, such as Yangkou and the coastal areas of Dongtai, are under threat.

Cape Nanhui may not seem like a first-rate natural area, but it is in better condition than almost any place I have seen between Qidong and Yancheng. I say, therefore, that the recent crane sightings in Shanghai have come about in large part because elsewhere so much has been lost. The cranes have nowhere else to go.

Shanghai birders search for the Hooded Crane sojourning at Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Shanghai birders search for the Hooded Crane sojourning at Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. The new city of Lingang, which did not exist 10 years ago, looms in the background. (Craig Brelsford)

And that is why conserving Cape Nanhui is so important. Shanghai is facing a crisis, a “danger-opportunity” (危机). The 危 or danger is that amid the wholesale destruction of so much coastal habitat elsewhere, Shanghai will follow suit and destroy its remaining good habitat. The 机 or opportunity is for Shanghai to gather into its bosom the birds ejected from Jiangsu–to be not only the economic but also the conservationist leader on the Chinese coast. The creation at Cape Nanhui of an easily accessible, world-class, small to mid-sized wetland reserve along the lines of Sungei Buloh in Singapore would be a way of avoiding the 危 and seizing the 机.

The case for an easily accessible wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui could scarcely be more clear-cut:

(1) Cape Nanhui is of extraordinary environmental importance. The tip of the Shanghai Peninsula between the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay, Cape Nanhui is a stepping stone for birds migrating across those bodies of water. Cape Nanhui also holds large reed beds, habitat critical to Reed Parrotbill and other species at risk.

The largest component of the city-province of Shanghai is the Shanghai Peninsula, a projection of land between the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. Cape Nanhui is the tip of the peninsula, is a critically important stop for migrating birds, and is completely unprotected. A nature reserve at Cape Nanhui would form a third ‘stepping stone’ for birds crossing the Yangtze Delta, joining the reserves at Chongming Dongtan and Jiuduansha. Photo by NASA, customized by Craig Brelsford.
Cape Nanhui is the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula, a headland between the mouth of the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. As the satellite image above illustrates, a nature reserve at Cape Nanhui would form a ‘stepping stone’ for birds crossing the Yangtze Delta, joining the reserves at Chongming Dongtan and Jiuduansha as well as the largely undeveloped reclaimed land on Hengsha. (Newly reclaimed land on Hengsha not shown in this 2005 image.) (NASA/Craig Brelsford)

The 2 Red-crowned Crane this past Saturday were the latest in a parade of endangered birds that I and other birders have noted at the Cape over the years. Critically Endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper uses Cape Nanhui, as does Endangered Nordmann’s Greenshank. Around 2 percent of the world’s Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill are dependent on Cape Nanhui for several months each year. Large reed beds remain at Cape Nanhui and are the final strongholds on the Shanghai Peninsula of Near Threatened Marsh Grassbird and Near Threatened Reed Parrotbill. The latter species, a candidate for Shanghai Provincial Bird, will virtually disappear from mainland Shanghai if the reed beds at Nanhui are destroyed.

(2) Shanghai is clearly under-performing on the conservationist front. More must be done, and a good place to begin is Cape Nanhui.

Hen Harrier (top) and Eastern Marsh Harrier, Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. These photos show both the threats to the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula and the environmental opportunities still there. On the one hand, buildings and roads continue to encroach on the reed beds; the large farm building in the bottom photo was completed only in the past year. Further encroachments will erode the quality still further and deprive species such as Reed Parrotbill of even more habitat. On the other hand, habitat good enough to attract harriers remains. In the bottom photo, the harrier is flying directly over the reed bed (<a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/30%C2%B055'46.2%22N+121%C2%B057'37.1%22E/@30.929492,121.9581253,872m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x0:0x0!8m2!3d30.929492!4d121.960314" target="_blank">30.929492, 121.960314</a>) adjacent to the defunct wetland reserve. This reed bed covers a square kilometer, is untouched, and provides habitat critical to species dependent on reeds, such as Near Threatened <a href="http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22715480/0" target="_blank">Marsh Grassbird</a> and <a href="http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22721016/0" target="_blank">Japanese Reed Bunting</a>. In the top photo, the untouched reed bed is visible in the mid-ground, with the harrier making use of adjacent rice fields. Even small reserves can be effective, especially if bordered by agricultural areas. If managed correctly, a small to mid-sized reserve at Cape Nanhui would cost little, deliver much, and give environmental face to Shanghai. Photos by Craig Brelsford.
Hen Harrier (top) and Eastern Marsh Harrier, Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. These photos show both the threats to the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula and the environmental opportunities still there. On the one hand, buildings and roads continue to encroach on the reed beds; the large farm building in the bottom photo was completed only in the past year. Further encroachments will erode the quality still further and deprive species such as Reed Parrotbill of even more habitat. On the other hand, habitat good enough to attract harriers remains. In the bottom photo, the harrier is flying directly over the reed bed (30.929492, 121.960314) adjacent to the defunct wetland reserve. This reed bed covers a square kilometer, is untouched, and provides habitat critical to species dependent on reeds, such as Near Threatened Marsh Grassbird and Japanese Reed Bunting. In the top photo, the untouched reed bed is visible in the mid-ground, with the harrier making use of adjacent rice fields. Even small reserves can be effective, especially if bordered by agricultural areas. If managed correctly, a small to mid-sized reserve at Cape Nanhui would cost little, deliver much, and give environmental face to Shanghai. (Craig Brelsford)

Nature reserves have been established only on the extreme fringes of the city-province (which is a third the size of Wales). There are no reserves in mainland Pudong, a giant coastal district nearly twice the size of Singapore. Nowhere in this megalopolis can residents without a car enjoy the natural side of Shanghai, a city with an extraordinarily rich natural heritage. There is no known plan to conserve any of the dozens of square kilometers of reclaimed land on Hengsha.

(3) Because it is in the back yard of Shanghai, a city-province of more than 25 million people, a well-run, easily accessible wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui could be the match to light the fire of conservation across all China.

Shanghai birders in defunct wetland reserve, Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. As China becomes a middle-income country, Chinese people will find themselves with more and more disposable income and leisure time. This is especially the case in Shanghai, whose living standards are rapidly approaching those of advanced Western countries. Middle-class Chinese will increasingly demand places for rest, relaxation, and nature appreciation. Shanghai currently has such places, and one of them is Cape Nanhui. The tip of the Shanghai Peninsula already has beautiful reed beds and amazing migratory birds, the inheritance of natural Shanghai. With proper management, Shanghai could preserve and showcase those wonders, giving future generations of Shanghainese a gift that will never stop giving. L-R: Zhāng Huá (张华), Zhāng Xuěhán (张雪寒), Lán Bāngxiàn (蓝邦宪), Lán Xī (兰溪), Craig Brelsford, Cài Jiàndōng (蔡见东), Zhāng Xiǎoyàn (张小艳), Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽), Chéng Yīxuān (程一轩), Xú Yáng (徐扬). Photo by Elaine Du.
Shanghai birders in defunct wetland reserve, Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. The people you see in this picture are the Johnny Appleseeds of birding and nature appreciation in China. Though still few in number, people such as they are laying the foundation for a future in which more Chinese cherish the natural environment. In Shanghai living standards have attained those of Western countries. Shanghainese such as these birders now possess disposable income and leisure time. Increasingly, these middle-class people will demand places for rest, relaxation, and nature appreciation. Shanghai, a city-province half as large as Northern Ireland, currently has such places, and the most easily accessible of them is Cape Nanhui. In the face of unremitting development, and despite being under no environmental protection, the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula still holds considerable reed beds and attracts many endangered migratory birds. With proper management, Shanghai could preserve and showcase the wonders of Cape Nanhui, giving future generations of Shanghainese a gift that will never stop giving. L-R: Zhāng Huá (张华), Zhāng Xuěhán (张雪寒), Lán Bāngxiàn (蓝邦宪), Lán Xī (兰溪), Craig Brelsford, Cài Jiàndōng (蔡见东), Zhāng Xiǎoyàn (张小艳), Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽), Chéng Yīxuān (程一轩), Xú Yáng (徐扬). (Elaine Du)

Hundreds of thousands of children could visit the reserve with their parents using nothing more than the Metro and a quick taxi ride and be sleeping in their own bed that night, dreaming about the wild birds they had seen that day. For millions of parents and their kids, the weekend could be “Saturday, Disney; Sunday, Cape Nanhui Wetland.” A day at a Cape Nanhui Wetland would be an early introduction to the glories of natural Shanghai and would foster an appreciation of the natural world.

If Shanghai can be a world economic center and have world-class airports and a world-class skyline and world-class entertainment such as Disney, then it can and must have world-class preservation of its priceless coastline and migratory birds.

I repeat: The case for a world-class, easily accessible wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui is clear-cut.

111 SPECIES AT CORE SHANGHAI SITES

Shanghai birders at Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. Photo by Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽).
Shanghai birders at Nanhui. On 10 Dec. 2016, this international team attained the first-ever record of Red-crowned Crane on the Shanghai Peninsula. Standing, L-R: Andy Lee, Xú Yáng (徐扬), Xú Fènqiáng (徐奋强), Cài Jiàndōng (蔡见东), Michael Grunwell, Russell Boyman, & Lán Bāngxiàn (蓝邦宪). Bottom row: Zhāng Xuěhán (张雪寒), Zhāng Xiǎoyàn (张小艳), Zhāng Huá (张华), Lán Xī (兰溪), Chéng Yīxuān (程一轩), Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, Mrs. Hao, & Hǎo Lèzhī (郝乐之). (Hǎo Zhàokuān [郝兆宽]).
Elaine and I birded four of the eight days between 3 Dec. and 10 Dec. 2016, noting 111 species. We birded three days at Cape Nanhui, half a day on Hengsha Island, and half a day at Binjiang Forest Park in Pudong. On 10 Dec. Elaine and I led a group of members of the Shanghai Birding WeChat group on a tour of Nanhui. We birded the other days with Shanghai-based U.K. birder Michael Grunwell and U.S. birder Susan Lessner.

Major highlights were 2 Red-crowned Crane and Hooded Crane at Cape Nanhui and 3 Siberian Crane on Hengsha as well as Baikal Teal and Red-breasted Flycatcher at Nanhui and Ferruginous Duck on Hengsha.

Red-breasted Flycatcher, Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Red-breasted Flycatcher, Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. Rare Shanghai record. Note pinkish bill. (Craig Brelsford)

Nanhui also gave us three-day counts of 20 Vulnerable Swan Goose, 14 Greater White-fronted Goose, 190 Tundra Swan (bewickii), 255 Common Shelduck, 11 Greater Scaup, 4 Black-necked Grebe, Brown Crake, Vulnerable Saunders’s Gull, 2 Mew Gull Larus canus, 2 Lesser Black-backed Gull (heuglini), late Eurasian Wryneck, uncommon winter visitor Dusky Warbler, 22 Near Threatened Reed Parrotbill, and 2 extralimital Common Starling.

We noted shorebird stragglers at Nanhui, among them Near Threatened Eurasian Curlew (2), Bar-tailed Godwit (1), and Red Knot (3). We recorded just 2 Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill, and we found 3 Black-collared Starling near Pudong Airport.

Hen Harrier with Peregrine Falcon, Hengsha, 6 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Hen Harrier with Peregrine Falcon, Hengsha, 7 Dec. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

Hengsha gave us a rare Shanghai sighting of adult-male Hen Harrier as well as 3 Chinese Grey Shrike and impressive numbers of buntings. In a single stretch of scrub just 500 m long, we counted 14 Little Bunting, 18 Rustic Bunting, 17 Yellow-throated Bunting, 4 Black-faced Bunting, and 150 Pallas’s Reed Bunting.

Binjiang Forest Park once again proved to be one of the only places in urban Shanghai where Great Spotted Woodpecker is reliable. Thrushes were numerous, with Naumann’s Thrush leading the list.

PHOTOS

Dusky Thrush, 3 Dec. 2016, Nanhui. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
Dusky Thrush, 3 Dec. 2016, Nanhui. (Craig Brelsford)
Common Pochard, Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Common Pochard, a diving duck. Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)
Zitting Cisticola, Hengsha Island, 7 Dec. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
Zitting Cisticola, a drop of color in the drab scrub. Hengsha Island, 7 Dec. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)
Collared Finchbill, Binjiang Forest Park, Pudong, 7 Dec. 2016. Digiscoped image by Elaine Du.
Collared Finchbill, parking lot of Binjiang Forest Park, Pudong, 7 Dec. 2016. Feral or natural? The jury’s still out on Binjiang’s Collared Finchbill, a mainly south Chinese species. (Elaine Du)
Shanghai birders viewing Baikal Teal. 10 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Shanghai birders viewing Baikal Teal at Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

The Case for Conserving Cape Nanhui

Editor’s note: This tranquil scene is from Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), home of Reed Parrotbill and dozens of other species, and part of the large reed beds on the Dazhi River at Cape Nanhui. In the face of manic development, and in spite of being under no protection, Cape Nanhui conserves the best reed beds on the Shanghai Peninsula as well as mudflats critical to tens of thousands of migrating shorebirds. To save these treasures, Shanghai people must act now.

Who will save Cape Nanhui? Not foreigners like me, but the people of Shanghai. We foreigners are numerous in Shanghai and are disproportionately represented among the birders here. We can offer valuable perspectives. But if the people of Shanghai themselves do not wish to ensure a bright natural future for Cape Nanhui, then there is little that anyone can do.

I think that the people of Shanghai are ready for real conservation on the Shanghai mainland. Basic conservationist ideas have broad appeal, and an easily accessible, world-class, “people’s wetland reserve” at Cape Nanhui is a basic conservationist idea.

If I were Chinese and were arguing for a people’s wetland reserve for Cape Nanhui, then I would bring to light the following points.

SHANGHAI IS NOT A CITY IN THE CONVENTIONAL SENSE

The largest component of the city-province of Shanghai is the Shanghai Peninsula, a projection of land between the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. Cape Nanhui is the tip of the peninsula, is a critically important stop for migrating birds, and is completely unprotected. A nature reserve at Cape Nanhui would form a third ‘stepping stone’ for birds crossing the Yangtze Delta, joining the reserves at Chongming Dongtan and Jiuduansha. Photo by NASA, customized by Craig Brelsford.
The largest component of the city-province of Shanghai is the Shanghai Peninsula, a projection of land between the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. Cape Nanhui is the tip of the peninsula, is a critically important stop for migrating birds, and is completely unprotected. A nature reserve at Cape Nanhui would form a third ‘stepping stone’ for birds crossing the mouth of the Yangtze, joining the reserves at Chongming Dongtan and Jiuduansha. (NASA/Craig Brelsford)

Shanghai “市” isn’t really a city or a “municipality,” as 市 is often translated. It is a city-province, accountable to no government but the national government. The city-province is vast, covering an area greater than the U.S. states of Delaware and Rhode Island. Shanghai is twice as big as Luxembourg, half as large as Northern Ireland, and a third the size of Wales.

From a conservationist’s perspective, it is important to view Shanghai as a province and not a city, because cities are not usually thought of as being responsible for maintaining large nature reserves within their borders. Provinces, by contrast, are large enough to accommodate nature reserves.

I propose that, where workable, we stop referring to Shanghai as a city or municipality and start applying to it the more accurate label of city-province.

SHANGHAI OCCUPIES LAND UNUSUALLY IMPORTANT TO CONSERVATION

Reed Parrotbill. Far left: Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, May 2010. Upper middle: Yangkou, October 2010. Bottom middle and far right: Nanhui, Shanghai, May 2016.
Reed Parrotbill is a a symbol of Shanghai and candidate for Shanghai Provincial Bird. Nowhere do the people of Shanghai have a better chance of seeing this Near Threatened species than in the reed beds at Cape Nanhui. Protection of the reed beds at Cape Nanhui would send a message to the world that Shanghai takes conservation seriously. (Craig Brelsford)

Any jurisdiction covering an area the size of a small country would be expected to conserve substantial amounts of its area. In the case of Shanghai, the call to conserve is even louder, because the area it occupies is unusually important for conservation. The Shanghai Peninsula is situated between the mouth of Asia’s greatest river and Hangzhou Bay. It is on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and attracts tens of thousands of passage migrants representing a few hundred species.

Cape Nanhui is the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula and attracts passage migrants and winter visitors such as the Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill. Its large reed beds are the final stronghold on the Shanghai Peninsula of Near Threatened Reed Parrotbill, a candidate for Shanghai Provincial Bird, as well as Near Threatened Marsh Grassbird.

An abandoned sign about Ruddy Turnstone has been turned into a wall by a fisherman for his shack in the defunct nature reserve at Nanhui. 9 Nov. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
An abandoned sign about Ruddy Turnstone has been turned into a wall by a fisherman for his shack in the defunct nature reserve at Nanhui. (Craig Brelsford)

Cape Nanhui is completely unprotected; indeed, an attempt at a small wetland reserve has been shut down. The boardwalks and signs of the defunct reserve are crumbling, and the backhoes are standing by, waiting for the green light to smash what remains.

SHANGHAI, AN ENVIRONMENTAL UNDER-PERFORMER

No one is saying that Shanghai, a city-province of 26 million people, needs to create a Yellowstone. Any reasonable person understands the pressures the huge population of Shanghai puts on its natural resources.

Also, it must be pointed out that in the far-flung areas of the city-province, Shanghai has made an attempt at conservation. Chongming Dongtan preserves the eastern nub of Chongming Island, and Jiuduansha covers intertidal shoals near Pudong Airport.

Marsh Grassbird performing song flight at Nanhui, Shanghai, 10 April 2016.
Marsh Grassbird performing song flight at Cape Nanhui, 10 April 2016. The reed bed over which this grassbird was displaying is the largest at Cape Nanhui. It measures 1.4 sq. km and has its center at 30.876060, 121.945305. This reed bed is one of the last places on the Shanghai Peninsula where the song flight of Marsh Grassbird can be seen. (Craig Brelsford)

But Shanghai under-performs overall. Nowhere is the poor conservation performance more evident than in Pudong, the coastal city-within-a-city. Pudong is nearly double the size of Singapore and is half the size of Hong Kong. Yet the district contains zero wetland reserves on its mainland. Both Singapore and Hong Kong manage to hold in reserve significant portions of their territory.

The southeastern tip of Pudong is Cape Nanhui, a place that despite being under no protection still brims with natural treasures. No place on the Shanghai Peninsula has as many reed beds. The projection of land attracts birds making the long journey across Hangzhou Bay and the wide mouth of the Yangtze.

Moreover, Cape Nanhui is easily accessible to common people. It would be the perfect place for a world-class wetland reserve on the model of Sungei Buloh in Singapore and Yeyahu National Wetland Park in Beijing.

MORE INFORMATION

Craig talks to Pudong TV about the opportunities for conservation at Nanhui. Photo by Elaine Du.
On 12 Nov. 2016 I was interviewed by Pudong TV about the opportunities for conservation at Nanhui. (Elaine Du)

On shanghaibirding.com I have addressed the issue of conserving Nanhui:

Save the Nanhui Wetland Reserve! (cri de coeur plus call to action)
Remnants (preparation for probable demise of Cape Nanhui)
Reed Parrotbill, Symbol of Shanghai (naming Reed Parrotbill Provincial Bird of Shanghai will send a message about the importance of the reed beds such as those at Cape Nanhui)
Spoon-billed Sandpiper at Nanhui (proof of yet another endangered species using the defunct wetland reserve at Nanhui)
Will the Spoon Survive? (Nanhui is not the only area under threat. You ought to see the mess at Yangkou, Jiangsu. Conserving Nanhui will offset the losses elsewhere on the Chinese coast and will put a conservationist feather in Shanghai’s cap)
Meet Kai Pflug, Nanhui’s Mr. Clean (tribute to a birder doing his small part)

NEXT STEPS

We foreigners have had much to say about the future of Nanhui. I would like to hear more from Chinese. Is the case for a world-class wetland reserve at Nanhui convincing to you? If so, then what do you propose to do to bring it about?

First Mainland Shanghai Record of Hooded Crane

Editor’s note: The photo above shows Hooded Crane flying above fields at Nanhui on 12 Nov. 2016. Before our sighting, Grus monacha had never been recorded on the Shanghai Peninsula. Each year, about 100 Hooded Crane overwinter on eastern Chongming Island, 60 km north of Nanhui at the mouth of the Yangtze River.

Elaine Du and I birded three of the four days between Sat. 12 Nov. and Tues. 15 Nov. 2016. We noted 105 species. On Saturday we had the first-ever record in Nanhui of Hooded Crane. We also found Baikal Teal on Saturday as well as Greater White-fronted Goose, Tundra Swan, and Jack Snipe. Sunday was also spent at the coastal site in Pudong and gave us calling Brown-cheeked Rail as well as Hair-crested Drongo and late Rufous-tailed Robin. Other weekend Nanhui records were Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill holding steady at the defunct nature reserve (30.920500, 121.973167), Amur Falcon feasting on gnats small enough for leaf warblers, an uncommon Shanghai record of Water Pipit, and two more sightings of Endangered Yellow-breasted Bunting at its increasingly reliable site (30.850707, 121.863662). On Tuesday at Shanghai’s Zhongshan Park (31.221888, 121.420066) we had a very late Narcissus Flycatcher.

ELAINE’S FEAT OF BIRDING

The flyby sighting of Hooded Crane was Elaine’s finest hour. Michael Grunwell was in the back seat and, blinded by the roof, would have never seen the crane. I was busy driving along a very uncertain dirt track. We see so many Grey Heron at Nanhui, and it is so easy to disregard them, and sure enough two of the three birds flying together were Grey Heron. But one was not, and Elaine caught it.

Elaine got her first pair of binoculars in 2013 and is now making big discoveries. “You’ve come a long way, baby!”

Thanks to Shanghai birder Xiao Cao for his knowledge of species histories in Shanghai. It was he who told us that our Hooded Crane was a first record for mainland Shanghai.

JACK SNIPE AT IRON TRACK

Michael Grunwell, Iron Track, 5 Nov. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
Michael Grunwell at Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), 5 Nov. 2016. The reed beds around Iron Track line the Dazhi River and are a remnant of the habitat that used to cover the area. The reed bed is unlikely to be developed and provides excellent habitat for Reed Parrotbill and wintering Chestnut-eared Bunting and Jack Snipe. The latter species was found 12 Nov. 2016 by our group. (Craig Brelsford)

The experience with Jack Snipe occurred Saturday near dark at Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883). Our partner Michael Grunwell, Elaine, and I were looking for Brown-cheeked Rail. The snipe sneezed when flushed, flew to a towering height in a tighter formation than is typical in Common Snipe, and after all the fuss ended up landing only 150 m from where they had started.

When the snipe began their flight, I figured they were Common and continued looking for rails. Then I heard Michael cry out, “Possible Jack!” The snipe flew directly over us. The bill was noticeably shorter than the bill of the Common I have come to know. Elaine too saw the short bill.

The three of us feel confident in our record of Jack Snipe and urge others to be on the lookout for this species. Get pictures if you can.

Another look at Iron Track area, looking back toward the road.
Another view of Iron Track, looking back toward the road. (Craig Brelsford)

Iron Track is part of the extensive reed-bed habitat lining the Dazhi River (大治河). It provides excellent habitat for Chinese Pond Heron, White-breasted Waterhen, Brown-cheeked Rail (and possibly Water Rail), wintering Bluethroat, and wintering Jack Snipe. Reed Parrotbill is resident.

The beds are on either side of the river, are unlikely to be developed, and are in good condition. They are a remnant of the habitat that used to cover the entire area.

YELLOW-BREASTED BUNTING IN SHANGHAI

Yellow-breasted Bunting at site north of Luchao, 12 Nov. 2016.
Yellow-breasted Bunting at site north of Luchao, 12 Nov. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

As reported above, on Saturday with Michael and yet again on Sunday our site near Luchao delivered Yellow-breasted Bunting. The site is at 30.850694, 121.863667. We are now five-for-five in sightings of Yellow-breasted Bunting since our Nov. 5 discovery of the species there.

It will be interesting to see how long into the winter the Yellow-breasted Bunting remain. I hope they stay awhile, because it is unlikely any of the locals will catch ’n’ roast ’em. (The greatest factor in the endangerment of Emberiza aureola is massive poaching of the species for snacks in south China.)

Recently the site has yielded Black-browed Reed Warbler and Chestnut-eared Bunting and a late record of Barn Swallow. An un-ID’d rail has been spotted twice in the area.

To get to the site, from Luchao drive 1.5 km north from the bend in the road north of the canal, where the road begins to run parallel with the sea. Pull onto the unpaved track and park on the bridge of white cement. The buntings seem to be concentrated a few dozen meters south, near the place where picnickers dumped a big load of trash. Be on the lookout for individuals flying into the narrow reed bed after foraging runs in the adjacent rice paddies.

ID’ING BROWN-CHEEKED RAIL ON CALL

On Sunday at Nanhui we positively identified 2 Brown-cheeked Rail on call. Here is the recording I made (00:28; 2.7 MB):

The pitch matches closely the pitch in the recordings by Anon Torimi of rails assigned to Rallus indicus. I downloaded Torimi’s recordings from xeno-canto.org. I invite Shanghai birders to do the same. Get to know the sounds of both R. indicus and the extralimital R. aquaticus and start adding these species to your own Shanghai lists.

AMUR FALCON CATCHING GNATS

Amur Falcon catching gnats at Nanhui, 12 Nov. 2016.
Amur Falcon catching gnats at Nanhui, 12 Nov. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

On Saturday we were amazed to see Amur Falcon catching flies with their talons. We had five near Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074). In top left of the three-panel photo above, the falcon has spotted its prey and is accelerating toward it. In bottom left, the gnat is visible as the falcon zeroes in. At right, the falcon raises its talons for its tiny prey.

The instinct to use its talons is inefficient in this case and shows that Amur Falcon has evolved to hunt larger game. Smaller aerialists such as swifts, nightjars, swallows, and flycatchers snatch up their prey directly with the mouth.

PREACHING THE GOSPEL OF CONSERVATIONISM

Craig talks to Pudong TV about the opportunities for conservation at Nanhui. Photo by Elaine Du.
Craig talks to Pudong TV about the opportunities for conservation at Nanhui. (Elaine Du)

I saw the car with lettering saying “Pudong TV” and waved the journalists over. I told them I had something they might want to hear. Echoing my recent post Save Nanhui, I told the pair that Shanghai can have it all. It can be a world financial hub and China’s greatest metropolis and be a green city. It can follow Hong Kong and Singapore and develop a world-class urban wetland reserve easily accessible to nature lovers without their own car. Nanhui’s old wetland, I said, pointing to the defunct reserve behind us, could be the site of such a reserve.

As I talked, a small crowd gathered. Most seemed supportive of my ideas. I was not surprised. A world-class wetland at Nanhui is a basic conservationist idea, and basic conservationist ideas have broad appeal.

UNUSUAL APPEARANCE OF NARCISSUS FLYCATCHER

Photographers assemble before a setup designed to attract a male Naricissus Flycatcher at Zhongshan Park, 15 Nov. 2016.
Photographers assemble before a setup designed to attract a male Naricissus Flycatcher at Shanghai’s Zhongshan Park, 15 Nov. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

A male Narcissus Flycatcher made a rare late-autumn Shanghai appearance in Zhongshan Park (31.221888, 121.420066). On Tues. 15 Nov., the spectacle attracted 30 photographers.

The flycatcher was attracted by mealworms speared by photographers onto a soft steel wire. The wire was hung from a branch, enticing the flycatcher to hover to snatch the bait. The bird was appearing every 10 minutes.

I expressed concern but did not feel the need to be critical or intervene. The photographers obviously liked the flycatcher, did not think that they were harming it, and were enjoying themselves immensely.

I watched the flycatcher attack the mealworms. I think it unlikely that the wire would harm the bird. The bigger problem may be that the free protein will keep the bird here an unnaturally long time. A passage migrant through Earth’s largest city, Narcissus Flycatcher should be in Borneo by now.

INTERESTING WECHAT EXCHANGE ON ARCTIC WARBLER

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A discussion on 10 Nov. about Arctic Warbler showed the utility to birders of social media in general and Shanghai Birding in particular. Members Jonathan Martinez (based in Shenzhen) and Paul Holt (based in Beijing) shared their knowledge about Arctic Warbler and its sister species. In so doing, they shed light on the situation, still very imperfectly understood, of the Arctic-type complex in Shanghai.

Holt led off:

Paul Holt (PH): I see from a recent posting that @李伟 photographed an Arctic Warbler at Nanhui on the 28 October. Great images! Isn’t that extremely late? The latest ever Beijing record’s over two weeks earlier than that.

I then posted a long list of my Arctic-type records from autumn 2014 and autumn 2015. In the list, I bunched together all members of the Arctic Warbler Complex (Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis borealis and P. b. kennicotti, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler P. examinandus, and Japanese Leaf Warbler P. xanthodryas). I list all three species because, although it is presumed that the vast majority of spring and autumn records in Shanghai pertain to borealis, it is far from certain what the proportions are. (Arctic Warbler and its sister species are nearly impossible to separate on morphology but are distinguishable by voice.)

The latest autumn record I had of an Arctic-type warbler was 24 Oct. (2015).

Holt wrote back:

PH: Thanks @Craig (大山雀) Unless I’m missing something 28 October is later than any of the records you cite (but just by four days). Could it be that the Nanhui sighting is Shanghai’s latest ever? Also it’s interesting that you mention all three species. Have any of your region’s Arctic-types been identified to a species other than borealis?

Shanghai's Big 5 Leaf Warblers: Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (1), Arctic Warbler (2), Eastern Crowned Warbler (3), Pallas's Leaf Warbler (4), and Yellow-browed Warbler (5).
Leaf warblers are a tough group and are a perennial source of discussion in the Shanghai Birding WeChat group as well as on shanghaibirding.com. On 26 Sept. 2016, shanghaibirding.com published a study of Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers: Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (1), Arctic Warbler (2), Eastern Crowned Warbler (3), Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (4), and Yellow-browed Warbler (5). (Craig Brelsford)

Craig Brelsford (CB): @Paul Holt I have not recorded anything other than borealis around Shanghai. (All confirmed borealis records are of individuals singing in spring.) I also suspect that a record of xanthodryas is next to impossible in Shanghai. I am aware that citing all three names is not a perfect solution. I list all three species because I believe information is insufficient. No one knows how many Arctic-type in Shanghai are borealis and how many examinandus. Very basic facts about the species in east-central China are unclear. Maybe someday studies will confirm that an Arctic-type in east-central China is borealis, with a probability of 99%. In that case, I would probably assign any silent Arctic-type I saw to borealis. Do you have any suggestions?

A few minutes later, I added:

CB: Just remembered that Michael Grunwell, Elaine Du, and I had Arctic-type this past Sat. 5 Nov. We got a good look at the bird, too. October was a warm, wet month in Shanghai, and the entire fall migration season seems to be late a week or two. Would others here agree?

PH: I’ve never seen xanthodryas in mainland China, have only ever encountered two examinandus (which were the first records for Liaoning & Hebei. Both sound recorded) here & have too little to go on I’m afraid @Craig (大山雀). Personally I log everything as Arctic Warbler by default, though that’s far from perfect. Until more of us work on this awkward group & make an effort to sound-record them, it’ll be a long time yet before a truer picture of their patterns of occurrence emerges. Cracking late record last weekend @Craig (大山雀). Surely that must be a good candidate for being the latest ever.

CB: @Paul Holt Maybe for simplicity’s sake I should log everything as Arctic. I have hesitated because I dislike speculation, and besides your very reliable records from up north I have little else to go on.

At this Martinez came in with his south-China perspective:

Jonathan Martinez (JM): I’ve heard xanthodryas on Fujian coast in early May and had a bird caught in October at Xitou identified as xanthodryas by DNA on tail feathers among about 15 borealis. I found an examinandus in central Guangxi in September, first suspected by call on a bird wave and clearly identified with call a few days later. I suspect examinandus is not a coastal migrant and probably goes through mainland China. I think still the only species recorded in Hong Kong is borealis, despite many looking for these.

CB: Thanks! With a confirmed xanthodryas in Fujian and examinandus only “suspected” not to use the Chinese coast, I’ll keep my clunky three-species listing. Arctic-type Warbler in China is a subject crying out for more research.

CAPE NANHUI

'Cape Nanhui' is the southeastern-most point of Pudong (red) and the city-province of Shanghai. Map courtesy Wikipedia. By Mikey641 - File:China Shanghai location map.svg, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=50893597
‘Cape Nanhui’ is the southeastern-most point of Pudong (red) and the city-province of Shanghai (yellow). The Shanghai Peninsula could be construed to be the mainland areas of Shanghai. (Wikipedia/Craig Brelsford)

Did you know that the birding area at Nanhui is a cape? This is an aspect of Nanhui that perhaps requires more discussion. The 30-km stretch of coastline is the southeastern-most point of Pudong as well as of the entire city-province of Shanghai.

Cape Nanhui (I like the ring of that) juts out between the mouth of the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. The cape aspect of Nanhui makes it even more valuable to migrating birds than regular coastline. Nanhui is a stepping stone, catching birds that have just made a non-stop crossing of the mouth of the Yangtze River (in fall) or a non-stop crossing of Hangzhou Bay (in spring).

I also find it interesting that one never hears of the “Shanghai Peninsula.” It’s a term with explanatory power. Although rather nubby, the Shanghai Peninsula is clearly a promontory between the mouth of the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. Cape Nanhui is the tip of the promontory.

If conservationists talk about a nature reserve for “Cape Nanhui,” the tip of the “Shanghai Peninsula,” then maybe they will have a stronger case.

A NOTE FROM TOMMY PEDERSEN

Tommy Pedersen is a pilot with Emirates. He is Norwegian and has been based in Dubai for many years. An accomplished birder, Tommy created uaebirding.com. This outstanding site is the best introduction to birding in the United Arab Emirates and the Arabian Peninsula.

Tommy recently sent a message to shanghaibirding.com:

I had a work flight to Shanghai 9-11 November 2016, and following Craig’s excellent site, I decided to visit Nanhui.

I booked a room at Holiday Inn Express (no English spoken, cold and drafty rooms), close to the Magic Parking Lot and Nanhui Nature Reserve. Two targets: Saunders’s Gull and Reed Parrotbill.

On Day 1, 9 November, I was extremely lucky and bumped into Craig and Elaine with Erica, who took me to the nature reserve. We had a jolly good time (at least I was), and Saunders’s Gulls were soon spotted (http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S32503941).

Day 2 saw me walking 16 km in total, enjoying a near windless morning with massive migration overhead. It was magic: http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S32503940

Hope to be back soon

Tommy Pedersen
www.uaebirding.com

Day Lists
Lists are generated on eBird then adjusted to comport with my first reference, the IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 1 for Sat. 12 Nov. 2016 (80 species)

Michael Grunwell and Elaine Du view Baikal Teal on the coastal road at Nanhui, 12 Nov. 2016.
Michael Grunwell and Elaine Du view Baikal Teal on coastal road at Nanhui, 12 Nov. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. List includes birds found at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). We covered the coastal road from Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558) to Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455). Among the points along this 30 km stretch are Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074), Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635), Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551), South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997), Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047), & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). Partly cloudy. Low 12° C, high 21° C. Humidity 60%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind SSW 23 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 85 (moderate). Sunrise 06:20, sunset 16:57. SAT 12 NOV 2016 06:40-17:00. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons 48
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii 14
Gadwall Anas strepera 8
Falcated Duck A. falcata 3
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 160
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 130
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha ca. 800
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 70
Northern Pintail A. acuta 60
Baikal Teal A. formosa 40
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 50
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 2
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 50
Greater Scaup A. marila 8
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 7
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 25
Great Cormorant Eurasian Phalacrocorax carbo 75
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 150
Great Egret A. alba 15
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 1
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 30
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 2
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 3
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 16
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 3
Eurasian/Black-faced Spoonbill P. leucorodia/minor 53
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 1
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus 2
Hen Harrier C. cyaneus 1
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 4
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 30
Hooded Crane Grus monacha 1
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 1
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa 1
Sanderling Calidris alba 1
Dunlin C. alpina 8
Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus 8
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 3
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 5
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus 3
Spotted Redshank T. erythropus 250
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 30
Vega Gull Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 4
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 2
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 3
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 2
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 1
Amur Falcon F. amurensis 6
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 35
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 30
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 6
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 4
Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus 1
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 1
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 6
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 16
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 40
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 30
Red-billed Starling Spodiopsar sericeus 1
White-cheeked Starling S. cineraceus 6
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 1
Japanese Thrush Turdus cardis 3
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 6
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 2
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 13
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 2
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 50
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 11 (10 taivana, 1 tschutschensis)
White Wagtail M. alba 15 (1 ocularis)
Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni 1
Water Pipit A. spinoletta 1
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens 12
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla 1
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata 21
Yellow-breasted Bunting E. aureola 5
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 3
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 56

List 1 of 1 for Sun. 13 Nov. 2016 (69 species)

Rufous-tailed Robin <em>Larvivora sibilans</em>, record for Shanghai. 13 Nov. 2016, Microforest 4, Nanhui.
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans, late record for Shanghai. 13 Nov. 2016, Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Nanhui. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. List does not include Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124), which was shrouded in fog. We covered the coastal road from Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558) to Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455). Among the points along this 30 km stretch are Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074), Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635), Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551), South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997), Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047), & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). Cloudy, foggy, with intermittent drizzle. Sunrise 06:20, sunset 16:57. SUN 13 NOV 2016 06:40-16:40. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Cezary Raczko.

Gadwall Anas strepera 8
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 30
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 8
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 150
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 2
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula 1
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 4
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 25
Great Cormorant Eurasian Phalacrocorax carbo 40
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris 1
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 100
Great Egret A. alba 30
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 60
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 1
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 17
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 15
Eurasian/Black-faced Spoonbill P. leucorodia/minor 30
Brown-cheeked Rail Rallus indicus 2
Water/Brown-cheeked Rail R. aquaticus/indicus 3
White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 3
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 4
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 3
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 1
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 14
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 1
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus 2
Spotted Redshank T. erythropus 80
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 5
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 1
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 3
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 3
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 3
Amur Falcon F. amurensis 1
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 1
Falco sp. 2
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 40
Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus 1
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 1 singing
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 8
Yellow-bellied Tit Periparus venustulus 4
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 20
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 25
Brown-flanked Bush Warbler Horornis fortipes 1
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 18
Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus 4
Black-browed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps 1
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 4
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 18
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 35
Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus 2
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 10
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 7
Japanese Thrush Turdus cardis 5
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 2
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 6
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 4
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 1
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 19
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 18
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 2
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 150
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis taivana 8
White Wagtail M. alba 14
Buff-bellied Pipit Anthus rubescens 80
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata 7
Rustic Bunting E. rustica 2
Yellow-throated Bunting E. elegans 3
Yellow-breasted Bunting E. aureola 3
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 14
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 16

List 1 of 1 for Tues. 15 Nov. 2016 (16 species). Zhongshan Park (Zhōngshān Gōngyuán [中山公园]; 31.221888, 121.420066), urban green space in Changning District, Shanghai. Partly cloudy. Low 12° C, high 17° C. Humidity 62%. Visibility 10 km. Wind NE 23 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 93 (moderate). Sunrise 06:22, sunset 16:55. TUE 15 NOV 2016 13:00-15:00. Craig Brelsford & Elaine Du.

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 5
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 2
Japanese Tit Parus minor 2
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 30
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 4
Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus 1
Chinese Hwamei Garrulax canorus 3
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 1
Chinese Blackbird T. mandarinus 4
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 3
Oriental Magpie-Robin Copsychus saularis 3
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 4
Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 20
White Wagtail Motacilla alba leucopsis 2

Reed Parrotbill, Symbol of Shanghai

Did you know that Shanghai is going to have a municipal bird? Guess what the two main candidates are: Light-vented Bulbul and Reed Parrotbill. Although I can understand why Light-vented Bulbul needs to be in the running, Reed Parrotbill is clearly the better choice. Let me tell you why.

Reed Parrotbill, Iron Track, 5 Nov. 2016.
Reed Parrotbill, lively little sprite of the Shanghai reed beds. Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), Pudong, 5 Nov. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

The argument for Light-vented Bulbul is that it is a bird of the people. As the versatile little bird lives even in the deepest recesses of the urban jungle, many Shanghai residents are familiar with it. Reed Parrotbill, by contrast, is less well-known.

One reason Reed Parrotbill is less known, of course, is that the reeds that used to cover the coastline and line the banks of the Yangtze River are disappearing. The disappearance of those reeds is perhaps the best reason to make Reed Parrotbill the municipal bird.

Reed Parrotbill, Iron Track, Nanhui, 5 Nov. 2016.
Reed Parrotbill is a curious little bird and will often shimmy up the reed to see what’s going on. Iron Track, 5 Nov. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

The choice of Reed Parrotbill would be a bold endorsement of Natural Shanghai, the city at the mouth of Asia’s greatest river and on Earth’s greatest migratory flyway. It would be a way of saying that Earth’s largest city values not only Reed Parrotbill but also the threatened habitat in which Reed Parrotbill lives.

The choice of Light-vented Bulbul, by contrast, would constitute a failure of imagination. It would be not a celebration of Natural Shanghai but a ratification of the environmental degradation afflicting this city. Light-vented Bulbul is a species that thrives in the degraded habitats that are all too common in Shanghai.

Reed Parrotbill, Nanhui, 17 May 2016.
In breeding season Reed Parrotbill is more conspicuous than at other times of the year. Here’s one in the reeds near Microforest 2, Nanhui, 17 May 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

The choice of Reed Parrotbill for municipal bird is far more than a political statement. The bird is full of personality and is beautiful, with rusty flanks, a grey head with a long black eyebrow, and a big yellow bill. The latter it uses to pry open reeds to get the insect larvae inside.

Reed Parrotbill is not a birder's bird but the people's bird. It is a species totally dependent on reeds, a plant that is part of the very fabric of Shanghai.
Reed Parrotbill is not just a birder’s bird but is the people’s bird. Paradoxornis heudei is a species totally dependent on reeds, a plant that is part of the very fabric of Shanghai. Reed Parrotbill represents well the natural heritage of Earth’s greatest city. Nanhui, 30 March 2014. (Craig Brelsford)

Reed Parrotbill has a varied repertoire of calls, all lively and colorful. To this day the calls and song of this species are among the most common bird sounds heard at Nanhui and on Hengsha Island and Chongming Island.

The chirr sound is perhaps the best-known. I recorded all the sounds below at Nanhui, with the exception of “siren,” recorded on Chongming. Enjoy them and get to know Shanghai’s best choice for municipal bird, Reed Parrotbill.

chirr (00:03; 930 KB)

insistent (00:05; 1 MB)

plaintive (00:04; 958 KB)

merry (00:20; 1.6 MB)

siren (00:04; 954 KB)

CONSERVATION STATUS

Because of the continued degradation and reclamation of the reed-bed habitat on which it is totally dependent, Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei is listed by IUCN as Near Threatened. In Chinese it is known as “Chinese Parrotbill” (Zhèndàn Yāquè, 震旦鸦雀). Nearly its entire range is in China, from Heilongjiang south to Zhejiang. Small parts of its distribution spill over into Mongolia and the Russian Far East.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Do you agree that Reed Parrotbill should be the municipal bird of Shanghai? Would you prefer another species? Readers want to know what you think! Leave a comment below.

115 SPECIES AT PUDONG SITES

Our partner Mike May got this image of a Yellow-breasted Bunting feeding on rice near Luchao. The endangered buntings were found at the spot we call the Marshy Agricultural Land (). On 5 Nov. 2016 we first found Yellow-breasted Bunting there. We returned on 8 Nov., when Mike got this shot, as well as 9 Nov., finding the species there each time.
Our partner Mike May got this image of a Yellow-breasted Bunting feeding on rice near Luchao. The endangered bunting was found at the spot we call the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). On 5 Nov. 2016 we first found Yellow-breasted Bunting there. We returned on 8 Nov., when Mike got this shot, as well as 9 Nov., finding the species there each time.

Since last we posted, Elaine Du and I birded three days: Sat. 5 Nov., Tues. 8 Nov., and Wed. 9 Nov. 2016. We noted 115 species. At Nanhui’s defunct nature reserve (30.920507, 121.973159) we had Long-billed Dowitcher and Endangered Great Knot, and we noted the continued presence there of Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill. Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124) yielded Smew, Greater ScaupBlack-necked Grebe, and an uncommon Shanghai record of Black Kite. We had Reed Parrotbill and Brown-cheeked Rail at a new site called the Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), and we went three-for-three with Endangered Yellow-breasted Bunting at a point (30.850707, 121.863662) north of Luchao, where we also attained an autumn record of Black-browed Reed Warbler. Drives along the sea-wall road gave us Amur Falcon and Peregrine Falcon, and Japanese Sparrowhawk dove for cover into Microforest 7.

Amur Falcon, 2 of 3 noted by us on 5 Nov. 2016 at Nanhui.
Amur Falcon, 2 of the 3 noted by us on 5 Nov. 2016 at Nanhui. (Craig Brelsford)

We found Tundra Swan (bewickii) on all three days, with a high count of 11 on 9 Nov. on the mudflats near Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074). The previous evening near Big Bend we had a rare Shanghai record of Greater White-fronted Goose. In the mudflats north of South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997) we had Eurasian Curlew and a rare Shanghai record of Mew Gull Larus canus.

Among shorebirds, Dunlin and Kentish Plover not surprisingly were the most numerous. Careful scanning allowed us to sift out more southerly winterers such as the Great Knot as well as small numbers of Black-tailed Godwit, Broad-billed Sandpiper, Red-necked Stint, and Sanderling. Vulnerable Saunders’s Gull were at the defunct nature reserve.

Microforest 4 yielded Japanese Robin on 7 Nov., seen and photographed by Shanghai birder kaca. A careful search by us the following two days failed to turn up the rare passage migrant. On 5 Nov. we had a late record of Arctic Warbler. Other interesting passerines were Hair-crested Drongo and Naumann’s Thrush. Scaly-breasted Munia was at the Iron Track, we had season’s first Rustic Bunting, and the skies gave us Red-rumped Swallow and Asian House Martin.

On 5 Nov. Elaine and I were joined by Michael Grunwell, the Shanghai-based veteran British birder. On 8 Nov. we welcomed U.K. birder Mike May, and on 9 Nov. we partnered with U.S. birder Erica Locke.

PLEASE REPORT ABUSE

On 8 Nov. we found a bird photographer with a cage baited with mealworms. We asked him politely but firmly to put the cage away, and he complied. If you see persons trapping or otherwise abusing birds at Nanhui, call the forestry department at 21-51586246 or the Pudong New Area Wildlife Protection Station at 21-61872122.

Hair-crested Drongo is an uncommon passage migrant in Shanghai. Photo by Mike May.
Hair-crested Drongo is an uncommon passage migrant in Shanghai. Photo by Mike May.

Day Lists
Lists are generated on eBird then adjusted to comport with my first reference, the IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 2 for Sat. 5 Nov. 2016 (6 species). Birds noted at sod farm south of Pudong International Airport (31.112586, 121.824742), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Sunny and hazy/smoggy. Low 12° C, high 22° C. Humidity 88%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind SSE 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 176 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:14, sunset 17:01. SAT 05 NOV 2016 06:40-07:10. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 3
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 8
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 5
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 1
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 2
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens 8

List 2 of 2 for Sat. 5 Nov. 2016 (85 species)

Yellow-throated Bunting, Nanhui, 5 Nov. 2016.
Yellow-throated Bunting, Nanhui, 5 Nov. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. List includes birds found at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). We covered the entire coastal road from Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455) to Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558). Among the points along this 30 km stretch of coast are the Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074), Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635), the Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), the Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551), South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997), the Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047), & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). Sunny & hazy/smoggy. Low 12° C, high 22° C. Humidity 88%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind SSE 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 176 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:14, sunset 17:01. SAT 05 NOV 2016 07:30-17:30. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus 1 juv.
Falcated Duck Anas falcata 76
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 12
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 45
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 1
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 7
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 16
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 2
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 35
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 20
Black-necked Grebe P. nigricollis 1
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 40
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris 1
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 70
Great Egret A. alba 5
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 1
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 50
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 7
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 28
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 45
Eurasian/Black-faced Spoonbill P. leucorodia/minor 30
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 2
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus 1
Black Kite Milvus migrans 1
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 1
Brown-cheeked Rail Rallus indicus 1
rail sp. 2
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 30
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 37
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 20
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus 8
Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus 330
Little Ringed Plover C. dubius 1
Broad-billed Sandpiper Calidris falcinellus 3
Red-necked Stint C. ruficollis 8
Sanderling C. alba 5
Dunlin C. alpina 330
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus 1
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 3
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 33
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 40
Saunders’s Gull Chroicocephalus saundersi 3
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 2
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 7
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 6
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 2
Amur Falcon Falco amurensis 3
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 26
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 8
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 20
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus ca. 100
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 25
Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians/H. borealis borealis 1
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 4
Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus 6
Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler P. borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas 1
Black-browed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps 2
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 10
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 12
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 45
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 3
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 6
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 1
Japanese Thrush T. cardis 7
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 1
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 8
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 9
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 1
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 22
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki 4
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 30
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 50
Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata 1
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 17
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 4
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens 16
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla 6
Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami 2
Chestnut-eared Bunting E. fucata 15
Little Bunting E. pusilla 3
Rustic Bunting E. rustica 1
Yellow-throated Bunting E. elegans 10
Yellow-breasted Bunting E. aureola 4
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 12
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 6

List 1 of 1 for Tues. 8 Nov. 2016 (75 species)

Greater White-fronted Goose, Nanhui, 8 Nov. 2016. Rare Shanghai record.
Greater White-fronted Goose, Nanhui, 8 Nov. 2016. Rare Shanghai record. Digiscoped images by Elaine Du using Swarovski ATX-95 scope and iPhone 6.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. List includes birds found at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). We covered the entire coastal road from Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455) to Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558). Among the points along this 30 km stretch of coast are the Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074), Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635), the Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), the Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551), South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997), the Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047), & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). Early rain, turning cloudy. Windy  throughout day. Low 12° C, high 17° C. Humidity 69%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind N 30-40 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 68 (moderate). Sunrise 06:16, sunset 16:59. TUE 08 NOV 2016 06:40-17:50. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Mike May.

Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons 15
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii 1 juv.
Falcated Duck Anas falcata 80
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 84
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 8
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha ca. 500
Northern Pintail A. acuta 20
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 12
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 2
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 80
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 45
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 20
Great Cormorant Eurasian Phalacrocorax carbo 60
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 40
Great Egret A. alba 5
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 200
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 4
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 12
Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor 1
Eurasian/Black-faced Spoonbill P. leucorodia/minor 60 distant, bills tucked in
Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis 1
White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 1
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 20
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 10
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata 13
Dunlin Calidris alpina 20
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 4
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 70
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 30
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 1
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus 8
Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris 8
Mew Gull Larus canus 1
Vega Gull Vega Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 3
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia 2
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 4
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 12
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 8
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops 1
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 2
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 10
Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus 2
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 2
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 8
Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica 2
Asian House Martin Delichon dasypus 1
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 20
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 6
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 6
Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus 2
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 1
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 30
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 4
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 5
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 1
Japanese Thrush T. cardis 3
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 1
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 12
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 8
Naumann’s Thrush T. naumanni 1
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 1
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 9
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 13
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 50
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis taivana 1
White Wagtail M. alba 12
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 2
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla 100
Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami 2
Yellow-throated Bunting E. elegans 6
Yellow-breasted Bunting E. aureola 2
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 3

List 1 of 1 for Wed. 9 Nov. 2016 (69 species)

A rather harried flock of Pied Avocet fly over the defunct wetland at Nanhui, 9 Nov. 2016. The avocets were often interrupting their feeding and resting to make a circular flight before settling back down at more or less the same location.
A rather harried flock of Pied Avocet fly over the defunct wetland at Nanhui, 9 Nov. 2016. The avocets were often interrupting their feeding to make a circular flight before settling back down at more or less the same location. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. List includes birds found at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). We covered the entire coastal road from Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455) to Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558). Among the points along this 30 km stretch of coast are the Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074), Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635), the Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), the Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551), South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997), the Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047), & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). Cloudy & breezy. Low 11° C, high 13° C. Humidity 69%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind NNW 15 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 55 (moderate). Sunrise 06:17, sunset 16:58. WED 09 NOV 2016 06:30-17:20. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Erica Locke.

Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii 11
Gadwall Anas strepera 12
Falcated Duck A. falcata 300
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 290
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 40
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha ca. 500
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 30
Northern Pintail A. acuta 120
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 140
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 15
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 250
Greater Scaup A. marila 4
Smew Mergellus albellus 2
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 2
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 50
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 12
Great Cormorant Eurasian Phalacrocorax carbo 200
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 60
Great Egret A. alba 20
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 260
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 12
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 14
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 8
Eurasian/Black-faced Spoonbill P. leucorodia/minor 48 distant, bills tucked in
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 7
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 30
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 35
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 20
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 40
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa 1
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris 2
Red-necked Stint C. ruficollis 3
Dunlin C. alpina 60
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 3
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 250
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 80
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 25
Saunders’s Gull Chroicocephalus saundersi 12
Black-headed Gull C. ridibundus 300
Vega Gull Vega Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 6
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia 2
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 2
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 12
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 9
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 2
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 13
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 6
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 20
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 5
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 4
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 3
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 15
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 6
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 4
Pale Thrush Turdus pallidus 12
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 8
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 16
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 18
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus ca. 100
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 24
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla 18
Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami 1
Chestnut-eared Bunting E. fucata 2
Yellow-throated Bunting E. elegans 9
Yellow-breasted Bunting E. aureola 3
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 2

Featured image: Reed Parrotbill, a Chinese near-endemic, a species under threat, a bird of personality and beauty, and a symbol of Shanghai and the Chinese coast. Far left: Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 8 May 2010. Middle, top: Yangkou, 10 October 2010. Middle, bottom and far right: Nanhui, 18 May 2016. All by Craig Brelsford.

A Rare Look at salangensis Ashy Drongo

Editor’s note: Each spring and autumn, Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus migrates through Shanghai. Race leucogenis breeds close to the Shanghai region and is the subspecies most commonly seen in Shanghai. The recent appearance at Nanhui of ssp. salangensis (pictured above) raises the question of exactly how numerous that central Chinese subspecies is on the Shanghai coast.

How dark was that migrating Ashy Drongo you just saw? You may want to pay attention, because the dark-grey central Chinese ssp. salangensis has been spotted at Cape Nanhui, the coastal birding site in Shanghai. In this post, I lay out the identification criteria for salangensis and the paler, more common ssp. leucogenis. My theory is that salangensis appears at some higher rate in Shanghai than has historically been recorded, which until recently has been not at all. An opportunity to fine-tune our understanding awaits us!

SEPARATING THE SUBSPECIES

Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus. All photos by Craig Brelsford except 3a (by Kai Pflug ).
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus. 1, 2b: D. l. leucogenis, Laoshan (32.071265, 118.560699), 4 July 2009. Laoshan, a site in Nanjing, Jiangsu 290 km inland from Shanghai, is a breeding area for D. l. leucogenis. 2a, 4: D. l. salangensis, Nanhui, Shanghai, 15 Oct. 2016. 3a: likely D. l. salangensis, Nanhui, September 2016. 3b: D. l. leucogenis, Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan, 1 June 2010. All photos by Craig Brelsford except 3a (by Kai Pflug).

Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus comprises 15 races, of which two are known in the Shanghai region: D. l. leucogenis and D. l. salangensis. D. l. leucogenis, the pale eastern race, is the more common migrant. D. l. salangensis is the darker race and is a vagrant to Shanghai.

A classic leucogenis (panels 1, 2b, 3b) is easy to distinguish from salangensis (2a, 4). A typical leucogenis is pale grey and shows a large white oval patch around the eye. D. l. salangensis is much darker, and its facial patch is reduced and less well defined. Both have a red iris.

Ashy Drongo not only has many races but also shows color variation within each race. The photos here were taken 1 June 2010 at Dongzhai, Henan. The drongo in Panel 1 is a classic pale leucogenis, and the drongo in panels 2 and 3 shows a slaty tone to the upperparts and underparts--though it too is most likely leucogenis.
Ashy Drongo not only has many races but also can show considerable color variation within each race. The drongos shown here were photographed within a few hundred meters of each other on 1 June 2010 at Dongzhai. The drongo in Panel 1 is a classic pale leucogenis. The drongo in panels 2 and 3 is a very different-looking bird, with a noticeable greyish-blue tone. (Craig Brelsford)

Intermediate forms (3a) are trickier. They may be purebreds showing random color variation or hybrids. The breeding ranges of leucogenis and salangensis partly overlap, with salangensis breeding in south-central China (mainly or exclusively south of the Yangtze River) and leucogenis breeding over a broad swath of eastern and central China from Sichuan east to Shandong and as far south as Guangdong.

Many thanks to Shanghai Birding member Jonathan Martinez. Martinez lives in Shenzhen and is an expert on the birds of southeast China. He was the first to point out that the photos of Ashy Drongo being posted on the Shanghai Birding WeChat group were of salangensis. He also was instrumental in our identification of the melanistic form of Long-tailed Shrike, discussed below. Thanks also to Paul Holt, who offered his opinion on the breeding range of leucogenis, and to Kai Pflug, for yet another useful photo.

103 SPECIES ON 15-16 OCT. 2016

Long-tailed Shrike dusky morph, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016.
Dusky Long-tailed Shrike, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016. Note that Dusky is not a subspecies but a color morph within Lanius schach schach, the same taxon found in Shanghai. The melanistic morph, however, is rare in Shanghai. Shanghai Birding member Jonathan Martinez reports that the form is ‘common’ in Guangdong, where the French birder resides. Martinez writes, ‘I’ve seen them in Jiangxi, Fujian, and coastal Guangxi. A bird turning up in Shanghai could be evidence of short-distance movements.’ (Craig Brelsford)

Partnering with visiting U.S. birder Bryce Harrison, Elaine Du and I noted 103 species over the weekend of Sat. 15 Oct. and Sun. 16 Oct. 2016. We covered the three main birding areas in Shanghai: Nanhui, eastern Chongming Island, and the reclaimed areas of Hengsha Island.

At Nanhui on Saturday we found Nordmann’s Greenshank, 24 Black-faced Spoonbill, 4 Mandarin Duck, and the Ashy Drongo. On Sunday on Hengsha we found a dark-morph Long-tailed Shrike, rare in Shanghai.

Black-faced Spoonbill (L) and Eurasian Spoonbill, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016. In the Shanghai region, the two species often are found together.
Black-faced Spoonbill (L) and Eurasian Spoonbill, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016. In the Shanghai region, the two species often are found together. Though not under quite as much pressure as Nordmann’s Greenshank and Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Platalea minor is nonetheless listed by the IUCN as endangered. Throughout the winter, Black-faced Spoonbill are consistently seen at Nanhui. (Craig Brelsford)

Nanhui also gave us Japanese Quail, Purple Heron, 6 Eurasian Spoonbill, 6 Black-tailed Godwit, and a Eurasian Woodcock at the Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551). We must have stumbled blindly past the well-camouflaged woodcock half a dozen times before finally flushing it. Also 4 Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, 2 Asian Stubtail, 2 first-of-season Red-flanked Bluetail, 2 Japanese Thrush, and 3 Eyebrowed Thrush.

Hengsha yielded Striated Heron, Pied Harrier, Eastern Marsh Harrier, Hen Harrier, Merlin, 9 Black-browed Reed Warbler, and our season’s first taivana Eastern Yellow Wagtail.

Japanese Quail with ever-present backhoes in the background. Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.
Japanese Quail with ever-present backhoes in background. Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

We found Eurasian Wryneck at Nanhui and on Hengsha and Bull-headed Shrike and Yellow-bellied Tit at Nanhui and on Chongming.

Nordmann’s Greenshank was roosting at nearly the same spot (30.920549, 121.963247) as a month ago. The endangered bird was among many Common Greenshank, allowing us to appreciate the former’s more obviously bi-colored bill, shorter legs, and more hunched appearance. The bird clearly stood out from among its Common cousins. For more on Nordmann’s ID, please see our Sept. 18 post, Your Handy-Dandy Nordmann’s Greenshank ID Primer.

The Black-faced Spoonbill were just a few hundred meters from the Nordmann’s in the defunct nature reserve. Poignantly, the spoonbills were roosting near the decrepit old sign introducing Platalea minor to the world.

UPDATES TO RECENT POSTS

This post has made waves among lovers of leaf warblers.This post has made waves among lovers of leaf warblers.
This post is making waves among leaf-warbler lovers.

My post of 26 Sept. 2016, “Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5,” has attracted the attention of Philip Round, one of the world’s foremost experts on Asian leaf warblers. I have written an addendum with an excerpt from an illuminating e-mail sent to me by Dr. Round. In it, he talks about the difficulties, some insurmountable, some not, in distinguishing Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler. In the republished post, scroll down to the section headed “UPDATE: 19 OCT. 2016.”

These photos are of a confirmed Amur female.
Amur female, Laoshan. (Craig Brelsford)

I have added two photos to the post of 10 Oct. 2016, “ID Workshop: Paradise Flycatchers.” The photos show a female Amur Paradise Flycatcher on its breeding grounds in Nanjing, Jiangsu. You now have another opportunity to study the photos of a confirmed Amur female. Compare that Amur with the migrating paradise flycatchers you find in the Shanghai area for an airtight ID. Scroll down to “UPDATE: 18 OCT. 2016.”

PHOTOS

Bull-headed Shrike, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus bucephalus, Nanhui. Outside the breeding season, the pale base to the lower mandible (inset) is present on both sexes of the nominate subspecies. This is an adult female. Note the lack of a black facial mask and the striking rusty-orange coloration. The nominate race breeds in northeast China, the Russian Far East and adjacent islands, Korea, and Japan and is a passage migrant in Shanghai. A little-known western subspecies, sicarius, breeds in Gansu and lacks the pale base to the lower mandible. (Craig Brelsford)
Pied Harrier, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016.
Pied Harrier, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016. This is an adult female. (Craig Brelsford)
Eurasian Hobby eating on the wing, Chongming Island, 16 Oct. 2016.
Juvenile Eurasian Hobby dining on the wing, Chongming Island, 16 Oct. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)
This line of trees wedged between two housing complexes holds many wild birds. On 17 Oct. 2016, I found Oriental Magpie-Robin and Japanese Tit, and on 14 Oct. I found a flock of Japanese White-eye.
This line of trees (31.216753, 121.408195) is wedged between two housing complexes near my apartment in Changning District, Shanghai. Deep in the bowels of Earth’s largest city, this spot is as urban as urban can be. The trees, however, are tall and provide a large surface area for wild birds. On 17 Oct. 2016, I found Oriental Magpie-Robin and Japanese Tit there, and on 14 Oct. I found a fast-moving flock of Japanese White-eye. Chinese Blackbird breed in the area, and Siberian Weasel have been noted in the vicinity. (Craig Brelsford)

WORKS CONSULTED

Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.
You too can join Shanghai Birding.

Brelsford, Craig, moderator. Shanghai Birding, a WeChat chat group. Quotations from Jonathan Martinez and Paul Holt taken from this chat group.

Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press. Entry on Ashy Drongo, p. 300. Brazil’s opus grows weaker as the distance from Japan (his base) of the birds he is covering grows longer. Brazil offers no information on D. l. salangensis on the east coast of China.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 14, “Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows.” Entry for Ashy Drongo (p. 220) written by G.J. Rocamora and D. Yeatman-Berthelot. The authors have “N Gansu” as the northwestern limit of the breeding range of D. l. leucogenis. Is that likely? See also Paul Holt’s misgivings in MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps, below.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 13, “Penduline-tits to Shrikes.” Entry for Bull-headed Shrike (pp. 775-6) written by Masaoki Takagi. Long-tailed Shrike (p. 781) by Anton Krištín.

Ferguson-Lees, James & David A. Christie. Raptors of the World. Princeton Field Guides. Entries on Pied Harrier, Hen Harrier, and Eastern Marsh Harrier.

MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps. A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press. Entry on Ashy Drongo, pp. 281-2. MacKinnon has breeding range of D. l. leucogenis stretching to Heilongjiang. Paul Holt (Shanghai Birding WeChat group) disagrees, saying the northeastern limit is more likely Shandong. Holt writes: “I think that the weakest aspect of John MacKinnon’s ground-breaking field guide are the ranges, and again I don’t think HBW’s accurate on that front either. I’d discount Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and Hebei from the breeding range of leucogenis Ashy Drongo and don’t believe that it can breed further north than Shandong (where it might not even occur) and southernmost Shanxi.”

Robson, Craig. Birds of Southeast Asia. Princeton University Press. Ashy Drongo, p. 176.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5

Editor’s note: The illustration above shows Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers: Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (1), Arctic Warbler (2), Eastern Crowned Warbler (3), Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (4), and Yellow-browed Warbler (5). In this post, I tell you how to separate Pale-legged and its lookalike Sakhalin Leaf Warbler from the others.

Last Sat. 24 Sept. 2016 at Nanhui, my object of observation was Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, one of the Big 5 Leaf Warblers in the Shanghai region. In both spring and autumn, Phylloscopus tenellipes passes through Earth’s greatest city in considerable numbers, giving Shanghai birders ample opportunity to study it. A lookalike species, Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides, also has been noted in Shanghai.

In this post, I shall outline the difficulty of distinguishing Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on anything but song, and I will show you some of the traits of “Pale-Sak” that set this species pair apart from other leaf warblers. I also have a roundup of the other birds I noted this past Saturday.

ONLY SONG CAN SAFELY SEPARATE PALE-LEGGED FROM SAKHALIN

Per's PDF, page 11
‘Almost identical’: that’s the judgment of leaf-warbler expert Per Alström on Pale-legged and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler. The page shown here is No. 11 of a 40-page PDF on leaf warblers in China that Professor Alström wrote in 2012. The PDF is a handy introduction to a difficult group and can be downloaded here (13 MB).

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler is safely separable from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler only by song. Every other trait of each can occur in the other. Numerous authorities confirm this. Swedish ornithologist Per Alström calls the two species “almost identical” and “virtually indistinguishable except by song” (1). Mark Brazil says field separation of Pale-Sak is “uncertain,” and he warns readers to “beware light conditions” (2). P. Clement writes that Pale-legged and Sakhalin are “very similar” and claims, dubiously, that the latter is distinguishable from the former “mainly by greener upperparts and lack of wingbars” (3). Clements goes on to describe juvenile Pale-legged as being “more greenish on upperparts,” which begs the question of whether the greenish Pale-Sak one is observing is an adult Sakhalin or a juvenile Pale-legged. Moreover, a quick look at Oriental Bird Images shows many Sakhalin Leaf Warbler with wing bars.

Thankfully for us birders, the songs of the two species are distinctive and provide the basis for a safe ID. The song of Pale-legged, occasionally heard in Shanghai in May, is a cricket-like trill, that of Sakhalin a high-pitched, three-note whistle.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, Boli County, Heilongjiang, 10 June 2016 (02:00, 6.4 MB)

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Zhongshan Park, Shanghai, 5 May 2016 (00:36; 2.2 MB)

One day last May, I heard Pale-legged and Sakhalin singing together in Zhongshan Park—proof that Sakhalin passes through Shanghai. Usually, however, birders here are forced to perform the less than satisfying task of assigning the individuals they see to the category “Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.”

Bottom line: In Shanghai, any Pale-Sak one sees is probably Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, the continental breeder, and not Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, the breeder from the eponymous Russian island plus Hokkaido and Honshu; but to claim certainty about any non-singing individual is the taxonomical version of Russian roulette.

DISTINGUISHING PALE-SAK FROM OTHER LEAF WARBLERS

The Pale-Sak species pair is readily distinguishable from other leaf warblers, in particular the other four members of Shanghai’s Big 5: Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus, Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus, Arctic Warbler P. borealis, and Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus.

Here are a few principles:

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler are plain, mid-sized to large leaf warblers without even the hint of a coronal stripe.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin has no crown stripe.
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler shows no trace of a crown stripe (Panel 1). Yellow-browed Warbler usually shows a faint stripe (2). In Eastern Crowned Warbler (3) and Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (4), the stripe is prominent. (Craig Brelsford)

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler has distinctive pink legs and a short bill with a black smudge on the lower mandible, which is pink at the base and tip.

Bill and legs of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler compared to those of Arctic Leaf Warbler.
Like Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, species in the Arctic Warbler Complex lack a crown stripe and usually show one or two wing bars. One way to distinguish birds from the two groups is by the color of the legs and bill. The legs (Panel 1) of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler are distinctively pale and pink, in contrast to the brownish-yellow legs of the Arctic-type Warbler in 2. Likewise, the slightly shorter bill of Pale-legged/Sakhalin (3) shows a blackish upper mandible and pinkish lower mandible and cutting edge. The black smudge on the lower mandible does not reach the tip. The bill of Arctic-type Warbler (4) follows a similar pattern, but with brownish-yellow replacing pink. (Craig Brelsford)

Even on a fast-moving Pale-Sak in poor light, the pink of the bill and especially of the legs is readily seen. The distinctive pale color of these bare parts is a handy tool for distinguishing Pale-Sak from birds in the Arctic Warbler Complex, which like Pale-Sak lack a crown stripe and usually show one or two wing bars. (The Arctic Warbler Complex consists of Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler P. examinandus, and Japanese Leaf Warbler P. xanthodryas. In Shanghai, Arctic Warbler is the most common of the three, migrating through Shanghai every spring and autumn.) The pink coloration also distinguishes Pale-Sak from Dusky Warbler P. fuscatus, an uncommon migrant and winter visitor in Shanghai, and the scarce passage migrant Two-barred Warbler P. plumbeitarsus.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler constantly pumps its tail.

The tail of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler pumps independently of other muscular actions.
The tail of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler pumps independently of other muscular actions. In panels 1-2, note that the tail pumps even as the warbler devours an insect. Panels 3-4 show the warbler motionless except for the up-and-down movement of the tail. Photos here and immediately below are of a single individual and were taken at Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

The tail-pumping of Pale-legged/Sakhalin is one of the most distinctive behavioral traits of the species pair. The steady movement usually occurs independently of other muscular actions and is slow enough for the eye to see. The tail-flicking of Arctic Warbler, by contrast, is more spasmodic and is often accompanied by wing-flicking.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler is often found on the lower, thicker branches of trees.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on thick branch.
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on thick branch. More so than other leaf warblers, Pale-Sak is likely to be seen on leafless, thick branches low on the tree. (Craig Brelsford)

With its ability to forage along thick branches and not just glean from the underside of leaves, Pale-legged/Sakhalin can remind one of a nuthatch. Other species such as Arctic Warbler use the lower branches, but sustained observation shows Pale-Sak more often in those areas. Note: In May and June 2016, I studied Pale-legged Leaf Warbler on its breeding grounds in Heilongjiang. There, amid trees older and taller than one usually sees in Shanghai, I most often noted the species far above my head, in the mid-canopy.

A NOTE ON CALLS

Except for the silent migrant Eastern Crowned Warbler, Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers all call in both spring and autumn. The calls are distinctive. The metallic “tink” of Pale-Sak contrasts markedly with the “tzit” of Arctic Warbler, the “dweet” of Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, and the “sweet” of Yellow-browed Warbler.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Nanhui, Shanghai, 8 May 2016 (00:15; 1.4 MB)

Arctic Warbler, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 16 May 2015 (00:09; 1.9 MB)

Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 9 May 2014 (00:05; 1.6 MB)

Yellow-browed Warbler, Lesser Yangshan Island, Zhejiang, 24 April 2014 (00:07; 1.7 MB)

Note that, according to Brazil, the call of Pale-Sak only can separate the pair from other species. It cannot be used to separate Pale-legged from Sakhalin. The tink of Pale-legged, Brazil writes, “is probably indistinguishable from Sakhalin Leaf” (2).

UPDATE: 19 OCT. 2016

Editor’s note: This post caught the attention of Philip D. Round, a professor at Mahidol University in Bangkok and an expert on leaf warblers. In an e-mail written 18 Oct. 2016, Round writes that as discoveries are made and papers published, separating Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on call may become more widespread. Separation on morphology, by contrast, will be much more difficult, though it may eventually turn out to be possible in the hand.

The following paragraphs are from Round’s e-mail to me:

“I enclose a paper that details the first records of both Kamchatka Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler from Thailand. [Editor’s note: the paper, “Addition of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides to Thailand’s Avifauna,” is available for download through shanghaibirding.com (708 KB).] This has been rather overtaken by events, as we have now caught into the hundreds of Sakhalin LW, mostly on spring passage, and quite a few more Kamchatka. I have an undergraduate student who has carried out DNA assay on about ten percent of all the Pale-legged and Sakhalin LW caught. For many of these we have also recorded call notes on release. When she comes back from overseas study in January 2017 I hope we’ll get a paper out which publishes details of call-note frequency and DNA results for this large sample, which should show the correlation between species and call-note frequency clearly. (Actually this is moderately and anecdotally well-known already. I think either Frank Lambert or Jonathan Martinez was the first to draw my attention to the difference, and it is mentioned by Yap et al. in BirdingASIA with reference to an overwintering Singapore bird.) [Note: Round is referring to Yap, Francis et al., “First wintering record of the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides in South-East Asia, with notes on vocalisations,” BirdingASIA 21 (2014): 76–81.]

“I am a bit less sanguine on finding means (other than by call frequency or song) to separate all birds. Even in the hand, it is by no means clear. We can pick out long-winged male Sakhalin, and short-winged female Pale-legged. But there is more overlap than previously realized, and most are in between. There don’t appear to be any 100% consistent wing-formula differences, and plumage and bare-part features, while somewhat indicative, are again less than 100% reliable—especially under field conditions. But probably we are missing something. The next thing to do is to apply PCA or some other multivariate analysis to figure out reliable means of separation of birds in the hand from our large sample, and also to use the information we have to figure out differences in the timing of passage of the two spp.”

ROUNDUP FOR SATURDAY 24 SEPT. 2016

Microforest 4
Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Sat. 24 Sept. 2016. This is the largest of the eight microforests at Cape Nanhui and an astonishingly effective migrant trap. With woodland birds migrating through and trees all around, one almost begins to forget that this speck of woodland is just a stone’s throw from the mudflats and the East China Sea. German birder Kai Pflug recently carted out trash from the wood, enhancing its allure. (Craig Brelsford)

Stimulating discussions about leaf warblers enlivened the lulls on a day in which my wife Elaine Du and I once again partnered with veteran British birder Michael Grunwell. We noted 69 species, starting at the sod farm south of Pudong airport then spending the rest of the day at Nanhui. We reunited briefly with the Sino-German birding duo of Xueping and Stephan Popp, and we met Dutch birder Benjamin Muis. Highlights:

Ruff

Ruff, by Elaine Du.
Note the scaly upperparts and buffy head of this juvenile Ruff, as well as the white sides to its tail. Elaine got these shots with my iPhone 6 plus Swarovski ATX-95 spotting scope mounted atop our Manfrotto head and Gitzo tripod. (Elaine Du)

Juvenile spotted on mudflats at high tide. A far-northern, trans-Eurasian breeder, Philomachus pugnax is a scarce passage migrant in Shanghai. Amid the greenshanks and godwits, the Ruff stood out with its buff-washed head and scaly upperparts. Juvenile Ruff resembles Buff-breasted Sandpiper, a much smaller American bird that we quickly ruled out.

Eurasian Hobby

Peregrine Falcon, Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016.
Eurasian Hobby, Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

1 juv. Earlier mis’ID as Peregrine Falcon; corrected 3 Oct. 2016.

White-winged Tern

A week ago ca. 2500, on Saturday only 10. Coastal birding is a parade of change, especially in migration season.

Other goodies: Eurasian Wryneck 2, Japanese Paradise Flycatcher 6, Amur Paradise Flycatcher 1, Richard’s Pipit 5, White’s Thrush 5 first-of-season, Rufous-tailed Robin 1 first-of-season. We introduced Benjamin to Reed Parrotbill calling unseen from the reeds below, we had a strong count of 16 Blue-and-white Flycatcher, and we noted two endangered species: Far Eastern Curlew and Yellow-breasted Bunting.

WORKS CITED

(1) Alström, Per. Identification of Phylloscopus & Seicercus Warblers in China. Notes from presentation given to Beijing Birdwatching Society in November 2012. PDF downloadable here (13 MB). Click here for a 5 MB zip archive containing all 40 pages of the report in JPEG form. Those pages can be synced to your smartphone like photographs and consulted in the field.

(2) Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press, p. 358.

(3) del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 11, “Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers,” species accounts for Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (p. 663) and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler (p. 664) written by P. Clement.

Where the World’s Greatest Flyway Meets the World’s Greatest City

Finally, it is ready: Elaine’s and my report on the doings of this past spring in Shanghai. We’re calling it “Shanghai-area Springtime Birding, 2016.”

The report is the latest in a growing list of resources available on shanghaibirding.com. Everything we do here is geared toward showing you what birding is like at the point on the Earth where the world’s greatest migratory flyway meets the world’s greatest city.

The report covers 7 March to 24 May 2016. Elaine and I birded 38 of those 79 days and noted 240 species. We partnered with members of our network of subscribers and contributors to shanghaibirding.com. Special thanks to Michael Grunwell and Jan-Erik Nilsén as well as to Xueping Popp, Stephan Popp, Kai Pflug, and Ian Davies.

Why should you read “Shanghai-area Springtime Birding, 2016”? Read it to plan your own explorations and to get an idea of what birds you can expect to see in this city in March, April, and May. You’ll find no more complete a report on that subject, anywhere.

From the intro:

“We deepened our knowledge of the birds of the East Asian–Australasian Flyway and increased our understanding of the pressures these birds face in the Shanghai region. One of the most densely populated areas in the world and an economic dynamo, the Shanghai tri-province area encompasses Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, is the size of the U.S. state of Kansas, and has a population of 160 million–half that of the United States.”

From the highlights:

“ — We continued to monitor species under threat by the uncontrolled coastal development afflicting the region, among them the endangered Black-faced Spoonbill, Great Knot, and Yellow-breasted Bunting; near-threatened Eurasian Oystercatcher, Asian Dowitcher, Black-tailed Godwit, Bar-tailed Godwit, Eurasian Curlew, Grey-tailed Tattler, Red Knot, Curlew Sandpiper, Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, Marsh Grassbird, and Reed Parrotbill; and vulnerable Chinese Egret, Saunders’s Gull, and Yellow Bunting. We led a group one of whose members found the critically endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper.

“ — We recorded the first Blue Whistling Thrush in Shanghai since 1987. Other interesting finds were Horned Grebe on Chongming, Oriental Plover on Hengsha Island, Ruddy Kingfisher at Yangkou, Red-throated Thrush at Century Park, singing Sakhalin Leaf Warbler at Zhongshan Park, Grey-crowned Warbler, Two-barred Warbler, Pechora Pipit, and Citrine Wagtail at Nanhui, White-shouldered Starling on Lesser Yangshan, Rufous-faced Warbler at Nanhui and on Lesser Yangshan, and Bluethroat at Nanhui and on Chongming.”

Featured image: Screenshot of our newly published report, “Shanghai-area Springtime Birding, 2016,” now available in the Reports section of shanghaibirding.com.