Sakhalin Leaf Warbler in Shanghai: A Clearer Picture

On Sun. 17 Sept. 2017 at Pudong’s Cape Nanhui, I achieved a personal first: photos of an unmistakable Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides. As expected, the photos show a leaf warbler whose plumage and bare parts are virtually indistinguishable from those of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes. Coupled, however, as they are with sound-recordings of the same individual, ensuring the ID, the photos constitute a rare visual record of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler in Shanghai.

The leaf warbler I found was easily identifiable as a member of the Pale-Sak species pair. It had strikingly pale pink tarsi, an olive-brown crown contrasting with olive-green mantle and wings, a long and creamy supercilium, and faint wing bars on the median and greater coverts.

The bird, which was in Microforest 1, behaved in a way typical of the Pale-Saks I have observed in the Cape Nanhui microforests, eight tiny woodlands that dot the coastline of the cape. Rarely venturing more than 2 m off the ground, the leaf warbler favored low branches and vines for browsing and sturdy low branches for perching. It pumped its tail steadily, called spontaneously, and upon hearing playback of its own call moved in to investigate the source.

Without recording the call of the leaf warbler (call as well as song being a diagnostic separator of Sakhalin and Pale-legged), would I have been able to get an ID? Almost certainly not, said leaf-warbler expert Phil Round:

“I am a bit less sanguine on finding means (other than call frequency or song) to separate all [Pale-Saks]. Even in the hand, it is by no means clear. We can pick out long-winged male Sakhalin, and short-winged female Pale-legged. But there is more overlap than previously realized, and most are in between. There don’t appear to be any 100% consistent wing-formula differences, and plumage and bare-part features, while somewhat indicative, are again less than 100% reliable–especially under field conditions.” (Round, in litt., 2016; emphasis mine)

The most convenient separator of Pale-Sak is song, the cricket-like trill of Pale-legged being easily separable from the metallic whistle of Sakhalin. As Shanghai is not in the breeding range of either species, Pale-Sak songs are not often heard in Earth’s Greatest City. I have heard Sakhalin sing only once, on 5 May 2016 at Shanghai’s Zhongshan Park (Brelsford 2016). The song of Pale-legged I have heard at various locations in Shanghai as well as on its breeding grounds in Heilongjiang (Brelsford & Du 2017).

Although not as readily distinguishable as the songs, the “tink” calls of Pale-Sak differ markedly and consistently and are a reliable basis for an ID (Yap et al. 2014; Round et al. 2016; Weprincew et al. 1989). Yap et al. say the call of Pale-legged is of a “consistently higher frequency” than the call of Sakhalin. The calls that I have recorded of the two species show a difference in frequency of about 1 kHz, very much in line with others’ findings (Brelsford, August 2017; Brelsford, September 2017).

For birders unaccustomed to Pale-Sak calls, the difference may be hard to detect, especially at windy Cape Nanhui. A sound-recorder (which may be a smartphone) will pick up the difference, and an audio spectrogram will show it graphically. Solid, indisputable ticks, in some cases life ticks, await enterprising birders who sound-record.

In recent months, my work with sound-recordings has helped give Shanghai birders a clearer picture not only of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler but also of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus, like Sakhalin a poorly known passage migrant through Shanghai (Brelsford, June 2017). In the case of Pale-Sak in Shanghai, a picture is emerging of overlapping migratory pathways. This finding comports with the findings of Yap et al. at Beidaihe, a thousand kilometers to the north. After analyzing calls obtained at Beidaihe of both Pale-legged and Sakhalin, Yap hypothesizes that in coastal Hebei “the migratory pathways of the two sister species may largely overlap” (2014).

How extensive is the Pale-Sak migratory overlap in Shanghai? How many of the Pale-Saks that we find in Shanghai each spring and autumn are Pale-legged, and how many are Sakhalin? Is there a peak passage time in Shanghai for each species, and if so, when is it?

Answers to these questions are currently unknown, but they are probably knowable, and it is very much possible for the citizen-scientists of Shanghai to be the producers of that knowledge. We only need to change our habits. When it comes to identifying lookalike species such as Pale-legged and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, birders need to understand that photos do nothing to cut through the muddle. Only sound-recordings lead to indisputable records and a clearer picture of the species in Shanghai.

A clearer picture will add to our knowledge of the movement of leaf warblers along the central Chinese coast, focus attention on little-known East Asian species, and heighten the allure of Shanghai as a world-class birding location.

RESOURCES

The sound-recordings and audio spectrograms below show clearly the difference in frequency between the calls of Sakhalin and Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides, Microforest 1 (30.953225, 121.959083), Cape Nanhui, 17 Sept. 2017 (01:03; 12.2 MB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes, Magic Parking LotCape Nanhui, 4 Sept. 2017 (00:19; 3.7 MB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Here are photos of the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler of 17 Sept. 2017. The bird below is the same individual whose voice I sound-recorded.

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Microforest 1, Cape Nanhui, Pudong, Shanghai, China, 17 Sept. 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
Sakhalin Leaf Warbler shows the classic features of the Pale-Sak species pair, among them an olive-brown crown contrasting with olive-green mantle and wings, a long and creamy supercilium, and faint wing bars on the median and greater coverts. (Craig Brelsford)
Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Microforest 1, Cape Nanhui, Pudong, Shanghai, China, 17 Sept. 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
Like its sister species Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, Sakhalin Leaf Warbler has an affinity for sturdy, leafless branches. Here, the leaf warbler, drawn by playback of its own voice, is using the perch to investigate the source of the sound. (Craig Brelsford)
Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Microforest 1, Cape Nanhui, Pudong, Shanghai, China, 17 Sept. 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
Like Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, Sakhalin Leaf Warbler pumps its tail steadily, often remaining otherwise motionless. (Craig Brelsford)

REFERENCES

Brelsford, Craig. Sakhalin & Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, Singing Together. Post to shanghaibirding.com published 5 May 2016.

———. Kamchatka Leaf Warbler in Shanghai. Post to shanghaibirding.com published 6 June 2017.

———. Separating Pale-legged & Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on Call. Post to shanghaibirding.com published 31 Aug. 2017.

———. Pale-Sak Calls: An Addendum. Post to shanghaibirding.com published 10 Sept. 2017.

Brelsford, Craig, & Du, Elaine. Boli County, Heilongjiang, May-June 2016: Part 1. Page on shanghaibirding.com last updated 1 Sept. 2017.

Round, Philip D. E-mail message to Craig Brelsford, 18 Oct. 2016. Round’s e-mail message was originally cited in the shanghaibirding.com post “Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5,” published 26 Sept. 2016.

Round, Philip D., Pierce, Andrew J., Saitoh, Takema, & Shigeta, Yoshimitsu. 2016. Addition of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides to Thailand’s Avifauna. Bulletin of the Japan Bird Banding Association 28: 9–21. Available here for download (708 KB) through shanghaibirding.com.

Weprincew, B. N., Leonowitsch, W. W. & Netschajew, W. A. 1989. Zur Lebensweise von Phylloscopus borealoides Portenko und Phylloscopus tenellipes Swinhoe. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 65 (Suppl.): 71–80. (German only)

Yap, F., Yong, D. L., Low, B., Cros, E., Foley, C., Lim, K. K. & Rheindt, F. E. 2014. First wintering record of the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler in South East Asia, with notes on vocalisations. BirdingASIA 21: 76–81. Downloadable here (accessed: 28 Sept. 2017).

Featured image: Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides, Cape Nanhui, Shanghai, 17 Sept. 2017. Craig Brelsford photographed and sound-recorded this individual, getting a rare record of the poorly known species in Earth’s Greatest City.

Pale-Sak Calls: An Addendum

In the wake of my recent post on distinguishing Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler by call, I have been hoping to find more members of this species pair in Shanghai. On 4 Sept. 2017 at Pudong’s Cape Nanhui, my hopes were fulfilled in a big way. At the Magic Parking Lot (30.884889, 121.968222), not one but both species were calling.

Below, the recordings I made with my Olympus DM-650 pocket recorder. The first Sakhalin recording was made at Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), 7.7 km north of the Magic Parking Lot on the coastal road. The others were made at the Magic Parking Lot.

Note the higher frequency of the calls of Pale-legged–on average a full kilohertz higher. The difference is discernible by the keen listener, but nothing tells the story better than the spectrograms.

To summarize what I argued in the previous post: The calls, as well as the very distinctive songs, of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler are diagnostic–that is, they differ markedly and consistently and are a reliable basis for an ID. The diagnosability of the calls of the two species has been affirmed by various researchers, among them Yap et al. (2014; Birding Asia 21: 76–81).

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides, call, Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Cape Nanhui, Pudong, Shanghai, 4 Sept. 2017 (00:02; 528 KB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, call, Magic Parking Lot (30.884889, 121.968222), Cape Nanhui, Pudong, Shanghai, 4 Sept. 2017 (00:07; 1.4 MB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes, call, Magic Parking Lot, 4 Sept. 2017 (00:19; 3.7 MB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, call, Magic Parking Lot, 4 Sept. 2017 (00:41; 7.9 MB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, call, Magic Parking Lot, 4 Sept. 2017 (00:10; 2 MB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, call, Magic Parking Lot, 4 Sept. 2017 (00:01; 332 KB)

Audio spectrogram of call of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Featured image: Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 1 May 2014. Photo by Craig Brelsford. Some of the salient characteristics of Pale-Sak are pointed out. Separating Pale-legged from Sakhalin on the basis of plumage and bare parts is not possible; because this bird was neither singing nor calling, it cannot be determined to which of the two species it belongs.

Separating Pale-legged & Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on Call

Editor’s note: In the photo above, a Pale-legged Leaf Warbler emits its characteristic “tink” call in Microforest 4, Cape Nanhui, Pudong, 27 Aug. 2017. The tink call of Pale-legged is appreciably higher-pitched than that of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler. Distinguishing the two calls is the subject of this post. — Craig Brelsford

Last September, in “Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5,” I asserted that “Pale-legged Leaf Warbler is safely separable from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler only by song.” I was wrong. Call as well as song is a reliable separator. In this post, I am going to tell you how I arrived at this insight, and I will show you how you too can achieve clear, indisputable ticks of these tricky species through call alone.

Experts since at least as far back as 1989 have been arguing that Pale-legged Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides are separable not only by their distinctive songs but also by their calls. Thailand-based birder and shanghaibirding.com contributor Phil Round is among those making that argument. Round and his co-authors write: “[T]he call of P. tenellipes is markedly higher in frequency than that of P. borealoides” (Round et al., “Addition of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides to Thailand’s Avifauna,” downloadable through shanghaibirding.com).

If your ear is good, or even if your ear is just average and you have a sound-recorder, then you too can appreciate the higher frequency of the call of Pale-legged. A sound-recorder is very important, because if you upload your recordings to databases such as eBird and the Macaulay Library, then you will be able to “see” the sound in the audio spectrogram.

Our first exhibit is the spectrogram of a call I sound-recorded of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on 8 May 2016 in Cape Nanhui’s Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083). The frequency is 4.8 kilohertz, a number that matches closely the frequency of Sakhalin calls on xeno-canto.org.*

Audio spectrogram of call of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.

Here is the sound-recording:

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, call, Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), 8 May 2016 (00:15; 1 MB)

Now consider the spectrograms and sound-recordings of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler below. The spectrogram immediately below was recorded by me on 10 June 2016 in my wife Elaine Du’s hometown of Boli, Heilongjiang, part of the breeding range of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler. The call (here a grace note) and song both clock in at about 6 kHz, a frequency a full 25 percent higher than the call of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler and, as with Sakhalin, consistent with the frequencies of Pale-legged calls on xeno-canto.org.

Audio spectrogram of call plus song of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Here is the sound-recording:

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, call and song, Xidaquan National Forest (45.727751, 130.317316), Boli, Heilongjiang, 10 June 2016 (01:59; 6 MB)

The spectrogram below is of a brief sound-recording I made in Microforest 4 this past Sunday. The song element of this passage migrant is absent (though note that I have heard Pale-legged and Sakhalin singing in Shanghai in spring). The call has a frequency of 5.9 kHz and clearly belongs to Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

Audio spectrogram of call of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler.

The sound-recording:

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, call, Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), 27 Aug. 2017 (00:01; 193 KB)

Why should you care about all this? Because prepared birders have a chance to get solid ticks of “Pale-Saks” that are merely calling and not necessarily singing. If you hear a Pale-Sak calling and trust your ear (or better yet, sound-record the call and later analyze the spectrogram), then you may be able to go beyond the safe, boring record of “Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler” to a more satisfying full tick.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes pumping its tail vigorously while remaining otherwise motionless and while standing (as is its wont) on a thick branch (top panels); and a second individual making its high-pitched "tink" call (bottom panels). Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083, top panels) and Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635, bottom panels), Cape Nanhui, Pudong, Shanghai, China, 27 Aug. 2017.
Pale-legged Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes performing typical behaviors. Top panels: pumping tail vigorously while remaining otherwise motionless on a sturdy branch. Bottom panels: making the high-pitched ‘tink’ call, again on a thick branch. Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083, top panels) and Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635, bottom panels), Cape Nanhui, 27 Aug. 2017. (Craig Brelsford)

Accurate, plentiful records from Shanghai will help researchers such as Round get a clearer picture of the movements and population of these understudied species. As Round et al. write: “Increased sampling of migrants may also resolve the differences in timing of passage between P. examinandus and P. borealis on the one hand, and P. borealoides and P. tenellipes on the other” (“Addition”; hyperlink mine).

My trusty Olympus DM-650 sound recorder. In May, the height of migration season, my sound recorder is like the American Express card: 'Don't Leave Home Without It!'
My Olympus DM-650

What’s more, you do not need to spend much or even know much to record good audio. My Olympus DM-650 costs less than US$250. I have no microphone other than the one built into my pocket recorder, I possess no parabola, and I use no editing software. My editing is limited to snipping off the unusable beginnings and endings of my sound-recordings, which I record in lossless 48kHz .wav. The very scientific-looking spectrograms displayed in this post are generated automatically by eBird and Macaulay.

In Shanghai in 2017, important facts about common birds such as Pale-legged Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler remain unknown. This ornithological semi-wilderness is both difficult and exciting. If we rise to the challenge and become better birders, then we will make new discoveries and blaze a trail of knowledge for future birders to follow.

* Audio spectrograms are available for every sound-recording on xeno-canto.org. On the unique page created for each recording, find the section “Actions” and click “Download full-length sonogram.”

A Rare Look at salangensis Ashy Drongo

Editor’s note: Each spring and autumn, Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus migrates through Shanghai. Race leucogenis breeds close to the Shanghai region and is the subspecies most commonly seen in Shanghai. The recent appearance at Nanhui of ssp. salangensis (pictured above) raises the question of exactly how numerous that central Chinese subspecies is on the Shanghai coast.

How dark was that migrating Ashy Drongo you just saw? You may want to pay attention, because the dark-grey central Chinese ssp. salangensis has been spotted at Nanhui, the coastal birding site in Shanghai. In this post, I lay out the identification criteria for salangensis and the paler, more common ssp. leucogenis. My theory is that salangensis appears at some higher rate in Shanghai than has historically been recorded, which until recently has been not at all. An opportunity to fine-tune our understanding awaits us!

SEPARATING THE SUBSPECIES

Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus. All photos by Craig Brelsford except 3a (by Kai Pflug ).
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus. 1, 2b: D. l. leucogenis, Laoshan (32.071265, 118.560699), 4 July 2009. Laoshan, a site in Nanjing, Jiangsu 290 km inland from Shanghai, is a breeding area for D. l. leucogenis. 2a, 4: D. l. salangensis, Nanhui, Shanghai, 15 Oct. 2016. 3a: likely D. l. salangensis, Nanhui, September 2016. 3b: D. l. leucogenis, Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan, 1 June 2010. All photos by Craig Brelsford except 3a (by Kai Pflug).

Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus comprises 15 races, of which two are known in the Shanghai region: D. l. leucogenis and D. l. salangensis. D. l. leucogenis, the pale eastern race, is the more common migrant. D. l. salangensis is the darker race and is a vagrant to Shanghai.

A classic leucogenis (panels 1, 2b, 3b) is easy to distinguish from salangensis (2a, 4). A typical leucogenis is pale grey and shows a large white oval patch around the eye. D. l. salangensis is much darker, and its facial patch is reduced and less well defined. Both have a red iris.

Ashy Drongo not only has many races but also shows color variation within each race. The photos here were taken 1 June 2010 at Dongzhai, Henan. The drongo in Panel 1 is a classic pale leucogenis, and the drongo in panels 2 and 3 shows a slaty tone to the upperparts and underparts--though it too is most likely leucogenis.
Ashy Drongo not only has many races but also can show considerable color variation within each race. The drongos shown here were photographed within a few hundred meters of each other on 1 June 2010 at Dongzhai. The drongo in Panel 1 is a classic pale leucogenis. The drongo in panels 2 and 3 is a very different-looking bird, with a noticeable greyish-blue tone.

Intermediate forms (3a) are trickier. They may be purebreds showing random color variation or hybrids. The breeding ranges of leucogenis and salangensis partly overlap, with salangensis breeding in south-central China (mainly or exclusively south of the Yangtze River) and leucogenis breeding over a broad swath of eastern and central China from Sichuan east to Shandong and as far south as Guangdong.

Many thanks to Shanghai Birding member Jonathan Martinez. Martinez lives in Shenzhen and is an expert on the birds of southeast China. He was the first to point out that the photos of Ashy Drongo being posted on the Shanghai Birding WeChat group were of salangensis. He also was instrumental in our identification of the melanistic form of Long-tailed Shrike, discussed below. Thanks also to Paul Holt, who offered his opinion on the breeding range of leucogenis, and to Kai Pflug, for yet another useful photo.

103 SPECIES ON 15-16 OCT. 2016

Long-tailed Shrike dusky morph, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016.
Dusky Long-tailed Shrike, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016. Note that Dusky is not a subspecies but a color morph within Lanius schach schach, the same taxon found in Shanghai. The melanistic morph, however, is rare in Shanghai. Shanghai Birding member Jonathan Martinez reports that the form is ‘common’ in Guangdong, where the French birder resides. Martinez writes, ‘I’ve seen them in Jiangxi, Fujian, and coastal Guangxi. A bird turning up in Shanghai could be evidence of short-distance movements.’

Partnering with visiting U.S. birder Bryce Harrison, Elaine Du and I noted 103 species over the weekend of Sat. 15 Oct. and Sun. 16 Oct. 2016. We covered the three main birding areas in Shanghai: Nanhui, eastern Chongming Island, and the reclaimed areas of Hengsha Island.

At Nanhui on Saturday we found Nordmann’s Greenshank, 24 Black-faced Spoonbill, 4 Mandarin Duck, and the Ashy Drongo. On Sunday on Hengsha we found a dark-morph Long-tailed Shrike, rare in Shanghai.

Black-faced Spoonbill (L) and Eurasian Spoonbill, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016. In the Shanghai region, the two species often are found together.
Black-faced Spoonbill (L) and Eurasian Spoonbill, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016. In the Shanghai region, the two species often are found together. Though not under quite as much pressure as Nordmann’s Greenshank and Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Platalea minor is nonetheless listed by the IUCN as endangered. Throughout the winter, Black-faced Spoonbill are consistently seen at Nanhui.

Nanhui also gave us Japanese Quail, Purple Heron, 6 Eurasian Spoonbill, 6 Black-tailed Godwit, and a Eurasian Woodcock at the Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551). We must have stumbled blindly past the well-camouflaged woodcock half a dozen times before finally flushing it. Also 4 Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, 2 Asian Stubtail, 2 first-of-season Red-flanked Bluetail, 2 Japanese Thrush, and 3 Eyebrowed Thrush.

Hengsha yielded Striated Heron, Pied Harrier, Eastern Marsh Harrier, Hen Harrier, Merlin, 9 Black-browed Reed Warbler, and our season’s first taivana Eastern Yellow Wagtail.

Japanese Quail with ever-present backhoes in the background. Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.
Japanese Quail with ever-present backhoes in background. Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.

We found Eurasian Wryneck at Nanhui and on Hengsha and Bull-headed Shrike and Yellow-bellied Tit at Nanhui and on Chongming.

Nordmann’s Greenshank was roosting at nearly the same spot (30.920549, 121.963247) as a month ago. The endangered bird was among many Common Greenshank, allowing us to appreciate the former’s more obviously bi-colored bill, shorter legs, and more hunched appearance. The bird clearly stood out from among its Common cousins. For more on Nordmann’s ID, please see our Sept. 18 post, Your Handy-Dandy Nordmann’s Greenshank ID Primer.

The Black-faced Spoonbill were just a few hundred meters from the Nordmann’s in the defunct nature reserve. Poignantly, the spoonbills were roosting near the decrepit old sign introducing Platalea minor to the world.

UPDATES TO RECENT POSTS

This post has made waves among lovers of leaf warblers.This post has made waves among lovers of leaf warblers.
This post is making waves among leaf-warbler lovers.

My post of 26 Sept. 2016, “Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5,” has attracted the attention of Philip Round, one of the world’s foremost experts on Asian leaf warblers. I have written an addendum with an excerpt from an illuminating e-mail sent to me by Dr. Round. In it, he talks about the difficulties, some insurmountable, some not, in distinguishing Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler. In the republished post, scroll down to the section headed “UPDATE: 19 OCT. 2016.”

These photos are of a confirmed Amur female.
Amur female, Laoshan.

I have added two photos to the post of 10 Oct. 2016, “ID Workshop: Paradise Flycatchers.” The photos show a female Amur Paradise Flycatcher on its breeding grounds in Nanjing, Jiangsu. You now have another opportunity to study the photos of a confirmed Amur female. Compare that Amur with the migrating paradise flycatchers you find in the Shanghai area for an airtight ID. Scroll down to “UPDATE: 18 OCT. 2016.”

Day Lists
My first reference is IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 1 for Fri. 14 Oct. 2016 (1 species). A line of trees at 31.216753, 121.408195. Point is near Zhongshan Park (31.221888, 121.420066) in Changning District, Shanghai, China. 12:35. Craig Brelsford.

Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus 8 (flock)

List 1 of 1 for Sat. 15 Oct. 2016 (75 species)

Bull-headed Shrike, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus bucephalus, Nanhui. Outside the breeding season, the pale base to the lower mandible (inset) is present on both sexes of the nominate subspecies. This is an adult female. Note the lack of a black facial mask and the striking rusty-orange coloration. The nominate race breeds in northeast China, the Russian Far East and adjacent islands, Korea, and Japan and is a passage migrant in Shanghai. A little-known western subspecies, sicarius, breeds in Gansu and lacks the pale base to the lower mandible.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Partly cloudy. Low 19° C, high 23° C. Humidity 73%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind E 23 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 59 (moderate). Sunrise 05:58, sunset 17:21. SAT 15 OCT 2016 05:30-17:00. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Bryce Harrison.

Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata 4
Garganey Spatula querquedula 5
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope 8
Eurasian Teal Anas crecca 60
Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica 1
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 3
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 80
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 50
Purple Heron A. purpurea 1
Great Egret A. alba 15
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 9
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 330
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 1
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 32
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 6
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 24
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 1
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 30
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 2
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 21
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 15
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa 6
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis 10
Dunlin C. alpina 20
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 2
Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola 1
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 1
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 16
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 80
Nordmann’s Greenshank T. guttifer 1
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 1
Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum 6
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica 6
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 1
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 7
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 10
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 2
Falco sp. 1
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus 4
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 22
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis 3
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus salangensis 1
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 4
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ca. 200
Yellow-bellied Tit Periparus venustulus 3
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 16
Asian Stubtail Urosphena squameiceps 2
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 2
Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler P. borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas 6
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes/borealoides 5
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 6
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 5
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 25
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica 1
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. dauurica 26
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 10
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 4
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 2
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki 1
Taiga Flycatcher F. albicilla 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 5
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 12
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 2
Japanese Thrush T. cardis 2
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 3
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 10
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 3
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 7
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 2
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 2
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 2
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 1
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 1

List 1 of 2 for Sun. 16 Oct. 2016 (50 species)

Pied Harrier, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016.
Pied Harrier, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016. This is an adult female.

Birds noted on Hengsha Island (Héngshā Dǎo [横沙岛]), small alluvial island at mouth of Yangtze River in Shanghai, China. S gate to reclaimed area at 31.297333, 121.859434. Hazy, warm, humid. Low 19° C, high 27° C. Humidity 88%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind NNW 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 179 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:58, sunset 17:20. SUN 16 OCT 2016 05:45-10:15. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Bryce Harrison.

Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas zonorhyncha 11
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 20
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 8
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 1
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris 2
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 30
Purple Heron A. purpurea 1
Great Egret A. alba 6
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 3
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 100
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 6
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 1
Striated Heron Butorides striata 1
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 75
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus 1
Hen Harrier C. cyaneus 1
Pied Harrier C. melanoleucos 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 20
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 20
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 2
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 180
Dunlin Calidris alpina 20
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 4
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia 6
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 3
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 2
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 3
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 2
Merlin F. columbarius 1
Falco sp. 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 13 (including 1 dusky morph)
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 10
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 50
Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica 2
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 12
Black-browed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps 9
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 7
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 16
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 3
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 6
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 3
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 10
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 6 (4 taivana, 2 tschutschensis)
White Wagtail M. alba 10
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 12
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 1
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 1
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 1
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 2

List 2 of 2 for Sun. 16 Oct. 2016 (47 species)

Eurasian Hobby eating on the wing, Chongming Island, 16 Oct. 2016.
Juvenile Eurasian Hobby dining on the wing, Chongming Island, 16 Oct. 2016.

Around Chongming Dongtan National Bird Sanctuary and Nature Reserve (Chóngmíng Dōngtān Niǎolèi Guójiājí Zìrán Bǎohùqū [崇明东滩鸟类国家级自然保护区]), Chongming District, Chongming Island, Shanghai, China (31.510109, 121.961955). Hazy, warm, humid. Low 19° C, high 27° C. Humidity 88%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind NNW 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 179 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:58, sunset 17:20. SUN 16 OCT 2016 11:45-16:25. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Bryce Harrison.

Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope 30
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 6
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 50
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 15
Great Egret A. alba 10
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 4
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 50
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 12
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 5
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus 2
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 5
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 60
Grey-headed Lapwing Vanellus cinereus 2
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 2
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus 1
Far Eastern Curlew N. madagascariensis 8
Eurasian Curlew N. arquata 2
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 2
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 2
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 10
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 4
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 25
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 7
Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum 50
Vega Gull Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 1
Common Tern Sterna hirundo 3
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 8
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo 1
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 1
Falco sp. 1
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus 1
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 16
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis 1
Eurasian Magpie Pica pica 18
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 50
Yellow-bellied Tit Periparus venustulus 1
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 20
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 1
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 30
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 7
Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica 3
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 50
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 8 tschutschensis
White Wagtail M. alba 5
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 12
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 2
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 4

List 1 of 1 for Mon. 17 Oct. 2016 (2 species)

This line of trees wedged between two housing complexes holds many wild birds. On 17 Oct. 2016, I found Oriental Magpie-Robin and Japanese Tit, and on 14 Oct. I found a flock of Japanese White-eye.
This line of trees (31.216753, 121.408195) is wedged between two housing complexes near my apartment in Changning District, Shanghai. Deep in the bowels of Earth’s largest city, this spot is as urban as urban can be. The trees, however, are tall and provide a large surface area for wild birds. On 17 Oct. 2016, I found Oriental Magpie-Robin and Japanese Tit there, and on 14 Oct. I found a fast-moving flock of Japanese White-eye. Chinese Blackbird breed in the area, and Siberian Weasel have been noted in the vicinity.

A line of trees at 31.216753, 121.408195. Point is near Zhongshan Park (31.221888, 121.420066) in Changning District, Shanghai, China. Mostly clear. Low 18° C, high 23° C. Humidity 80%. Visibility 10 km. Wind NE 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 107 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:59, sunset 17:19. MON 17 OCT 2016 08:35, 12:35. Craig Brelsford.

Japanese Tit Parus minor 2
Oriental Magpie-Robin Copsychus saularis 1

WORKS CONSULTED

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Brelsford, Craig, moderator. Shanghai Birding, a WeChat chat group. Quotations from Jonathan Martinez and Paul Holt taken from this chat group. To join Shanghai Birding, fill out the form on our Sightings page.

Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press. Entry on Ashy Drongo, p. 300. Brazil’s opus grows weaker as the distance from Japan (his base) of the birds he is covering grows longer. Brazil offers no information on D. l. salangensis on the east coast of China.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 14, “Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows.” Entry for Ashy Drongo (p. 220) written by G.J. Rocamora and D. Yeatman-Berthelot. The authors have “N Gansu” as the northwestern limit of the breeding range of D. l. leucogenis. Is that likely? See also Paul Holt’s misgivings in MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps, below.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 13, “Penduline-tits to Shrikes.” Entry for Bull-headed Shrike (pp. 775-6) written by Masaoki Takagi. Long-tailed Shrike (p. 781) by Anton Krištín.

Ferguson-Lees, James & David A. Christie. Raptors of the World. Princeton Field Guides. Entries on Pied Harrier, Hen Harrier, and Eastern Marsh Harrier.

MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps. A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press. Entry on Ashy Drongo, pp. 281-2. MacKinnon has breeding range of D. l. leucogenis stretching to Heilongjiang. Paul Holt (Shanghai Birding WeChat group) disagrees, saying the northeastern limit is more likely Shandong. Holt writes: “I think that the weakest aspect of John MacKinnon’s ground-breaking field guide are the ranges, and again I don’t think HBW’s accurate on that front either. I’d discount Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and Hebei from the breeding range of leucogenis Ashy Drongo and don’t believe that it can breed further north than Shandong (where it might not even occur) and southernmost Shanxi.”

Robson, Craig. Birds of Southeast Asia. Princeton University Press. Ashy Drongo, p. 176.