A Rare Look at salangensis Ashy Drongo

Editor’s note: Each spring and autumn, Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus migrates through Shanghai. Race leucogenis breeds close to the Shanghai region and is the subspecies most commonly seen in Shanghai. The recent appearance at Nanhui of ssp. salangensis (pictured above) raises the question of exactly how numerous that central Chinese subspecies is on the Shanghai coast.

How dark was that migrating Ashy Drongo you just saw? You may want to pay attention, because the dark-grey central Chinese ssp. salangensis has been spotted at Nanhui, the coastal birding site in Shanghai. In this post, I lay out the identification criteria for salangensis and the paler, more common ssp. leucogenis. My theory is that salangensis appears at some higher rate in Shanghai than has historically been recorded, which until recently has been not at all. An opportunity to fine-tune our understanding awaits us!

SEPARATING THE SUBSPECIES

Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus. All photos by Craig Brelsford except 3a (by Kai Pflug ).
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus. 1, 2b: D. l. leucogenis, Laoshan (32.071265, 118.560699), 4 July 2009. Laoshan, a site in Nanjing, Jiangsu 290 km inland from Shanghai, is a breeding area for D. l. leucogenis. 2a, 4: D. l. salangensis, Nanhui, Shanghai, 15 Oct. 2016. 3a: likely D. l. salangensis, Nanhui, September 2016. 3b: D. l. leucogenis, Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan, 1 June 2010. All photos by Craig Brelsford except 3a (by Kai Pflug).

Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus comprises 15 races, of which two are known in the Shanghai region: D. l. leucogenis and D. l. salangensis. D. l. leucogenis, the pale eastern race, is the more common migrant. D. l. salangensis is the darker race and is a vagrant to Shanghai.

A classic leucogenis (panels 1, 2b, 3b) is easy to distinguish from salangensis (2a, 4). A typical leucogenis is pale grey and shows a large white oval patch around the eye. D. l. salangensis is much darker, and its facial patch is reduced and less well defined. Both have a red iris.

Ashy Drongo not only has many races but also shows color variation within each race. The photos here were taken 1 June 2010 at Dongzhai, Henan. The drongo in Panel 1 is a classic pale leucogenis, and the drongo in panels 2 and 3 shows a slaty tone to the upperparts and underparts--though it too is most likely leucogenis.
Ashy Drongo not only has many races but also can show considerable color variation within each race. The drongos shown here were photographed within a few hundred meters of each other on 1 June 2010 at Dongzhai. The drongo in Panel 1 is a classic pale leucogenis. The drongo in panels 2 and 3 is a very different-looking bird, with a noticeable greyish-blue tone.

Intermediate forms (3a) are trickier. They may be purebreds showing random color variation or hybrids. The breeding ranges of leucogenis and salangensis partly overlap, with salangensis breeding in south-central China (mainly or exclusively south of the Yangtze River) and leucogenis breeding over a broad swath of eastern and central China from Sichuan east to Shandong and as far south as Guangdong.

Many thanks to Shanghai Birding member Jonathan Martinez. Martinez lives in Shenzhen and is an expert on the birds of southeast China. He was the first to point out that the photos of Ashy Drongo being posted on the Shanghai Birding WeChat group were of salangensis. He also was instrumental in our identification of the melanistic form of Long-tailed Shrike, discussed below. Thanks also to Paul Holt, who offered his opinion on the breeding range of leucogenis, and to Kai Pflug, for yet another useful photo.

103 SPECIES ON 15-16 OCT. 2016

Long-tailed Shrike dusky morph, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016.
Dusky Long-tailed Shrike, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016. Note that Dusky is not a subspecies but a color morph within Lanius schach schach, the same taxon found in Shanghai. The melanistic morph, however, is rare in Shanghai. Shanghai Birding member Jonathan Martinez reports that the form is ‘common’ in Guangdong, where the French birder resides. Martinez writes, ‘I’ve seen them in Jiangxi, Fujian, and coastal Guangxi. A bird turning up in Shanghai could be evidence of short-distance movements.’

Partnering with visiting U.S. birder Bryce Harrison, Elaine Du and I noted 103 species over the weekend of Sat. 15 Oct. and Sun. 16 Oct. 2016. We covered the three main birding areas in Shanghai: Nanhui, eastern Chongming Island, and the reclaimed areas of Hengsha Island.

At Nanhui on Saturday we found Nordmann’s Greenshank, 24 Black-faced Spoonbill, 4 Mandarin Duck, and the Ashy Drongo. On Sunday on Hengsha we found a dark-morph Long-tailed Shrike, rare in Shanghai.

Black-faced Spoonbill (L) and Eurasian Spoonbill, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016. In the Shanghai region, the two species often are found together.
Black-faced Spoonbill (L) and Eurasian Spoonbill, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016. In the Shanghai region, the two species often are found together. Though not under quite as much pressure as Nordmann’s Greenshank and Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Platalea minor is nonetheless listed by the IUCN as endangered. Throughout the winter, Black-faced Spoonbill are consistently seen at Nanhui.

Nanhui also gave us Japanese Quail, Purple Heron, 6 Eurasian Spoonbill, 6 Black-tailed Godwit, and a Eurasian Woodcock at the Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551). We must have stumbled blindly past the well-camouflaged woodcock half a dozen times before finally flushing it. Also 4 Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, 2 Asian Stubtail, 2 first-of-season Red-flanked Bluetail, 2 Japanese Thrush, and 3 Eyebrowed Thrush.

Hengsha yielded Striated Heron, Pied Harrier, Eastern Marsh Harrier, Hen Harrier, Merlin, 9 Black-browed Reed Warbler, and our season’s first taivana Eastern Yellow Wagtail.

Japanese Quail with ever-present backhoes in the background. Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.
Japanese Quail with ever-present backhoes in background. Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.

We found Eurasian Wryneck at Nanhui and on Hengsha and Bull-headed Shrike and Yellow-bellied Tit at Nanhui and on Chongming.

Nordmann’s Greenshank was roosting at nearly the same spot (30.920549, 121.963247) as a month ago. The endangered bird was among many Common Greenshank, allowing us to appreciate the former’s more obviously bi-colored bill, shorter legs, and more hunched appearance. The bird clearly stood out from among its Common cousins. For more on Nordmann’s ID, please see our Sept. 18 post, Your Handy-Dandy Nordmann’s Greenshank ID Primer.

The Black-faced Spoonbill were just a few hundred meters from the Nordmann’s in the defunct nature reserve. Poignantly, the spoonbills were roosting near the decrepit old sign introducing Platalea minor to the world.

UPDATES TO RECENT POSTS

This post has made waves among lovers of leaf warblers.This post has made waves among lovers of leaf warblers.
This post is making waves among leaf-warbler lovers.

My post of 26 Sept. 2016, “Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5,” has attracted the attention of Philip Round, one of the world’s foremost experts on Asian leaf warblers. I have written an addendum with an excerpt from an illuminating e-mail sent to me by Dr. Round. In it, he talks about the difficulties, some insurmountable, some not, in distinguishing Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler. In the republished post, scroll down to the section headed “UPDATE: 19 OCT. 2016.”

These photos are of a confirmed Amur female.
Amur female, Laoshan.

I have added two photos to the post of 10 Oct. 2016, “ID Workshop: Paradise Flycatchers.” The photos show a female Amur Paradise Flycatcher on its breeding grounds in Nanjing, Jiangsu. You now have another opportunity to study the photos of a confirmed Amur female. Compare that Amur with the migrating paradise flycatchers you find in the Shanghai area for an airtight ID. Scroll down to “UPDATE: 18 OCT. 2016.”

Day Lists
My first reference is IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 1 for Fri. 14 Oct. 2016 (1 species). A line of trees at 31.216753, 121.408195. Point is near Zhongshan Park (31.221888, 121.420066) in Changning District, Shanghai, China. 12:35. Craig Brelsford.

Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus 8 (flock)

List 1 of 1 for Sat. 15 Oct. 2016 (75 species)

Bull-headed Shrike, Nanhui, 15 Oct. 2016.
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus bucephalus, Nanhui. Outside the breeding season, the pale base to the lower mandible (inset) is present on both sexes of the nominate subspecies. This is an adult female. Note the lack of a black facial mask and the striking rusty-orange coloration. The nominate race breeds in northeast China, the Russian Far East and adjacent islands, Korea, and Japan and is a passage migrant in Shanghai. A little-known western subspecies, sicarius, breeds in Gansu and lacks the pale base to the lower mandible.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Partly cloudy. Low 19° C, high 23° C. Humidity 73%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind E 23 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 59 (moderate). Sunrise 05:58, sunset 17:21. SAT 15 OCT 2016 05:30-17:00. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Bryce Harrison.

Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata 4
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope 8
Garganey A. querquedula 5
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 60
Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica 1
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 3
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 80
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 50
Purple Heron A. purpurea 1
Great Egret A. alba 15
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 9
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 330
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 1
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 32
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 6
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 24
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 1
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 30
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 2
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 21
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 15
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa 6
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis 10
Dunlin C. alpina 20
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 2
Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola 1
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 1
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 16
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 80
Nordmann’s Greenshank T. guttifer 1
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 1
Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum 6
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica 6
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 1
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 7
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 10
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 2
Falco sp. 1
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus 4
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 22
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis 3
Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus salangensis 1
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 4
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ca. 200
Yellow-bellied Tit Periparus venustulus 3
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 16
Asian Stubtail Urosphena squameiceps 2
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 2
Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler P. borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas 6
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes/borealoides 5
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 6
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 5
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 25
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica 1
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. dauurica 26
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 10
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 4
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 2
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki 1
Taiga Flycatcher F. albicilla 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 5
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 12
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 2
Japanese Thrush T. cardis 2
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 3
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 10
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 3
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 7
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 2
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 2
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 2
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 1
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 1

List 1 of 2 for Sun. 16 Oct. 2016 (50 species)

Pied Harrier, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016.
Pied Harrier, Hengsha, 16 Oct. 2016. This is an adult female.

Birds noted on Hengsha Island (Héngshā Dǎo [横沙岛]), small alluvial island at mouth of Yangtze River in Shanghai, China. S gate to reclaimed area at 31.297333, 121.859434. Hazy, warm, humid. Low 19° C, high 27° C. Humidity 88%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind NNW 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 179 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:58, sunset 17:20. SUN 16 OCT 2016 05:45-10:15. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Bryce Harrison.

Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas zonorhyncha 11
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 20
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 8
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 1
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris 2
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 30
Purple Heron A. purpurea 1
Great Egret A. alba 6
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 3
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 100
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 6
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 1
Striated Heron Butorides striata 1
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 75
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus 1
Hen Harrier C. cyaneus 1
Pied Harrier C. melanoleucos 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 20
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 20
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 2
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 180
Dunlin Calidris alpina 20
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 4
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia 6
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 3
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 2
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 3
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 2
Merlin F. columbarius 1
Falco sp. 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 13 (including 1 dusky morph)
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 10
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 50
Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica 2
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 12
Black-browed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps 9
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 7
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 16
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 3
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 6
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 3
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 10
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 6 (4 taivana, 2 tschutschensis)
White Wagtail M. alba 10
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 12
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 1
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 1
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 1
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 2

List 2 of 2 for Sun. 16 Oct. 2016 (47 species)

Eurasian Hobby eating on the wing, Chongming Island, 16 Oct. 2016.
Juvenile Eurasian Hobby dining on the wing, Chongming Island, 16 Oct. 2016.

Around Chongming Dongtan National Bird Sanctuary and Nature Reserve (Chóngmíng Dōngtān Niǎolèi Guójiājí Zìrán Bǎohùqū [崇明东滩鸟类国家级自然保护区]), Chongming District, Chongming Island, Shanghai, China (31.510109, 121.961955). Hazy, warm, humid. Low 19° C, high 27° C. Humidity 88%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind NNW 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 179 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:58, sunset 17:20. SUN 16 OCT 2016 11:45-16:25. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Bryce Harrison.

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope 30
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 6
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 50
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 15
Great Egret A. alba 10
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 4
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 50
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 12
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 5
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus 2
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 5
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 60
Grey-headed Lapwing Vanellus cinereus 2
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 2
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus 1
Far Eastern Curlew N. madagascariensis 8
Eurasian Curlew N. arquata 2
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 2
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 2
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 10
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 4
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 25
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 7
Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum 50
Vega Gull Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 1
Common Tern Sterna hirundo 3
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 8
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo 1
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 1
Falco sp. 1
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus 1
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 16
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis 1
Eurasian Magpie Pica pica 18
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 50
Yellow-bellied Tit Periparus venustulus 1
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 20
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 1
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 30
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 7
Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica 3
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 50
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 8 tschutschensis
White Wagtail M. alba 5
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 12
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 2
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 4

List 1 of 1 for Mon. 17 Oct. 2016 (2 species)

This line of trees wedged between two housing complexes holds many wild birds. On 17 Oct. 2016, I found Oriental Magpie-Robin and Japanese Tit, and on 14 Oct. I found a flock of Japanese White-eye.
This line of trees (31.216753, 121.408195) is wedged between two housing complexes near my apartment in Changning District, Shanghai. Deep in the bowels of Earth’s largest city, this spot is as urban as urban can be. The trees, however, are tall and provide a large surface area for wild birds. On 17 Oct. 2016, I found Oriental Magpie-Robin and Japanese Tit there, and on 14 Oct. I found a fast-moving flock of Japanese White-eye. Chinese Blackbird breed in the area, and Siberian Weasel have been noted in the vicinity.

A line of trees at 31.216753, 121.408195. Point is near Zhongshan Park (31.221888, 121.420066) in Changning District, Shanghai, China. Mostly clear. Low 18° C, high 23° C. Humidity 80%. Visibility 10 km. Wind NE 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 107 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:59, sunset 17:19. MON 17 OCT 2016 08:35, 12:35. Craig Brelsford.

Japanese Tit Parus minor 2
Oriental Magpie-Robin Copsychus saularis 1

WORKS CONSULTED

Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.
You too can join Shanghai Birding.

Brelsford, Craig, moderator. Shanghai Birding, a WeChat chat group. Quotations from Jonathan Martinez and Paul Holt taken from this chat group. To join Shanghai Birding, fill out the form on our Sightings page.

Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press. Entry on Ashy Drongo, p. 300. Brazil’s opus grows weaker as the distance from Japan (his base) of the birds he is covering grows longer. Brazil offers no information on D. l. salangensis on the east coast of China.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 14, “Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows.” Entry for Ashy Drongo (p. 220) written by G.J. Rocamora and D. Yeatman-Berthelot. The authors have “N Gansu” as the northwestern limit of the breeding range of D. l. leucogenis. Is that likely? See also Paul Holt’s misgivings in MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps, below.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 13, “Penduline-tits to Shrikes.” Entry for Bull-headed Shrike (pp. 775-6) written by Masaoki Takagi. Long-tailed Shrike (p. 781) by Anton Krištín.

Ferguson-Lees, James & David A. Christie. Raptors of the World. Princeton Field Guides. Entries on Pied Harrier, Hen Harrier, and Eastern Marsh Harrier.

MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps. A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press. Entry on Ashy Drongo, pp. 281-2. MacKinnon has breeding range of D. l. leucogenis stretching to Heilongjiang. Paul Holt (Shanghai Birding WeChat group) disagrees, saying the northeastern limit is more likely Shandong. Holt writes: “I think that the weakest aspect of John MacKinnon’s ground-breaking field guide are the ranges, and again I don’t think HBW’s accurate on that front either. I’d discount Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, and Hebei from the breeding range of leucogenis Ashy Drongo and don’t believe that it can breed further north than Shandong (where it might not even occur) and southernmost Shanxi.”

Robson, Craig. Birds of Southeast Asia. Princeton University Press. Ashy Drongo, p. 176.

 

Crow-billed Drongo, First Record for Shanghai

Editor’s note: The image above shows Crow-billed Drongo (left) and Black Drongo. The former was noted in Shanghai on Tues. 11 Oct. 2016, a first for the city. The latter is a common passage migrant in Shanghai. In this post, I show you how to separate the two species.

On Tues. 11 Oct. 2016 at Nanhui, Shanghai’s major birding spot on the East China Sea, Shanghai Birding member kaca found a first-winter Crow-billed Drongo Dicrurus annectans. kaca’s record was the first for Crow-billed Drongo in Shanghai.

Is kaca’s historic discovery a one-off, or is it the result of more birders with greater skills more thoroughly covering Shanghai’s hot spots and communicating more readily with one another? If the answer is the latter, then there may be a Crow-billed Drongo in your future! To sift out Crow-billed from the many Black Drongo in our area, note the following:

Crow-billed Drongo, Nanhui, 11 Oct. 2016. First record for Shanghai. Photos © 2016 by kaca and generously shared by him with shanghaibirding.com.
Crow-billed Drongo Dicrurus annectans, Nanhui, 11 Oct. 2016. First record for Shanghai. Photos © 2016 by kaca. Used with permission–and gratitude.

All drongos have a strong, black bill. Crow-billed (Panel 2a, above) may have the stoutest, as deep at its base as it is wide.

The swollen look of its bill may be Crow-billed’s most striking feature. The bill of Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus cathoecus is broad and short but noticeably less thick-based than that of Crow-billed. Compare bills of the two species in the image at the top of this post. (Race cathoecus is the form of Black Drongo birders are most likely to see in Shanghai.)

The iris in kaca’s first-winter Crow-billed is reddish-brown (2a). Adult Crow-billed has a blood-red iris.

Compare brown iris of adult Black at top of post.

Black Drongo often shows white spot at gape, never present in Crow-billed.

Note again the photo leading off this post.

First-winter Crow-billed shows white spotting from breast to undertail coverts (2b, 3).

First-winter Black, by contrast, shows more patchily white underparts (panels 1a, 1b in photo below).

The tail of Crow-billed shows a less shallow fork than the tail of Black. On average, the tail of Black is forked about twice as deeply as that of Crow-billed.

Compare Panel 4 in photo above to Panel 2 in photo below. Adult Crow-billed and Black have deeper forks, but the proportions are the same as in the sub-adults. In addition, the outer rectrices of Crow-billed’s tail are more likely to curl upward.

Black Drongo, 19 Sept. 2012, Yangkou, Jiangsu. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
First-winter Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus cathoecus, 19 Sept. 2012, Yangkou, Jiangsu. Photos by Craig Brelsford.

BACKGROUND ON THE SPECIES

A monotypic species, Crow-billed Drongo Dicrurus annectans breeds from the Himalayan foothills in India east to Hainan. In winter some birds go as far south as Sumatra and Java. Shenzhen-based French birder Jonathan Martinez, an expert on southeast China birds, reports breeding populations of Crow-billed in northern Guangdong and southwest Hunan. There are coastal records, most likely of migrants, from Hong Kong and Guangxi. Shanghai Birding member Paul Holt writes that Crow-billed is “undoubtedly overlooked” in southern China and “is probably quite rare or at least very localized.” Martinez agrees, calling Crow-billed “scarce” even at the Guangdong and Hunan sites.

ALSO TUESDAY …

Hengsha highlights, 11 Oct. 2016: Lesser Kestrel (Panel 1), Lesser Sand Plover (2), Red-necked Stint (3), and Lesser Sand Plover, Kentish Plover, and Sanderling (4).
Highlights from Hengsha Island, 11 Oct. 2016: Common Kestrel (Panel 1), Lesser Sand Plover (2), Red-necked Stint (3), and Lesser Sand Plover, Kentish Plover, and Sanderling (4).

On Tuesday I arrived in Nanhui too late to see Crow-billed Drongo. My partners Kai Pflug and Elaine Du and I made the fateful decision to cover Hengsha Island in the morning. The alluvial island at the mouth of the Yangtze was decidedly humdrum, with Far Eastern Curlew out on the mud along with 2 Sanderling and a Ruddy Turnstone. The huge new tree plantation on the island failed to deliver any forest birds beyond a single Asian Brown Flycatcher. There was a good count (17) of Richard’s Pipit.

We arrived in Nanhui and found kaca, who mentioned an unusual drongo he had seen that morning. We kept our eyes peeled for dark drongos, finding none. Our Nanhui harvest was limited to expected October birds such as Grey-backed Thrush (6) and Eyebrowed Thrush (2). Asian Brown Flycatcher (26) seemed to be on every tree.

Pallas's Leaf Warbler preening itself after completing another leg of its long migratory flight. Nanhui, 11 Oct. 2016.
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler preening after completing another leg of its long migratory flight. Magic Parking Lot (30.884992, 121.968317), Nanhui, 11 Oct. 2016.

All of Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers were present: Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (1), Yellow-browed Warbler (1), Arctic-type Warbler (2), Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler (7), and Eastern Crowned Warbler (2).

We had 3 Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, Elaine’s and my season’s first Daurian Redstart, Asian Stubtail, and Rufous-tailed Robin.

I’m trying to get over missing the Crow-billed Drongo. I tell myself, “That’s birding,” but those words can’t fully dispel the empty feeling.

I am however happy for kaca, and I am encouraged, because the growing fluidity in reporting is leading to ever more astounding new bird records for Shanghai.

List 1 of 2 for Tues. 11 Oct. 2016 (29 species)

Cleaner air, cooler temperatures, and great birds: that's the autumn migration season in Shanghai. Last Tuesday, while kaca was making the astounding discovery of Crow-billed Drongo at Nanhui, I was on Hengsha Island and got the photo above. From that alluvial island we could see the Pudong skyline 38 km away.
On Tuesday, while kaca was discovering Crow-billed Drongo at Nanhui, I was getting this photo on Hengsha, the alluvial island at the mouth of the Yangtze River. From the island we could see the Yangtze in front of us and the Pudong skyline 38 km away.

Birds noted on Hengsha Island (Héngshā Dǎo [横沙岛]), a small alluvial island at mouth of Yangtze River in Shanghai, China. S gate to reclaimed area at 31.297333, 121.859434. Partly cloudy. Low 17° C, high 19° C. Humidity 64%. Visibility: large buildings visible from distance of 38 km. Wind NE 18 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 42 (good). Sunrise 05:55, sunset 17:25. TUE 11 OCT 2016 07:15-10:15. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Kai Pflug.

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 18
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 7
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 9
Great Egret A. alba 2
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 1
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 18
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 40
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus 15
Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus ca. 500
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis 1
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres 1
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis 12
Sanderling C. alba 2
Dunlin C. alpina 310
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 1
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 50
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 6
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 25
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 40
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 5
Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus ca. 50
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 50
White Wagtail M. alba 2
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 17
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 1

List 2 of 2 for Tues. 11 Oct. 2016 (35 species)

Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, Nanhui, 11 Oct. This is a female showing a clear demarcation between hood and white belly, faint rufous flanks, and a dark mantle showing little rufous coloration. For more on how to ID paradise flycatchers, see our post.
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551), Nanhui, Tuesday. This is a female showing a clear demarcation between dark breast and white belly, faint rufous flanks, a dark mantle, and sooty primary coverts. For more on identifying paradise flycatchers in Shanghai, see our recent post, ID Workshop: Paradise Flycatchers.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Partly cloudy. Low 17° C, high 19° C. Humidity 64%. Visibility: large buildings visible from distance of 38 km. Wind NE 18 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 42 (good). Sunrise 05:55, sunset 17:25. TUE 11 OCT 2016 13:00-18:05. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Kai Pflug.

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope 15
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 7
Garganey A. querquedula 9
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 30
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 3
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 42
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 3
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 20
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 1
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 8
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 6
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 7
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 20
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 3
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 2
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 1
Asian Stubtail Urosphena squameiceps 1
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 1
Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus 1
Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler P. borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas 2
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes/borealoides 7
Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus 2
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 7
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica 2
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. dauurica 26
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 8
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 1
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki 3
Taiga Flycatcher F. albicilla 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 2
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 8
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 6
Chinese Blackbird T. mandarinus 1
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 2
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 11

WORKS CONSULTED

Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.
Screen shot from Shanghai Birding.

Brelsford, Craig, moderator. Shanghai Birding, a WeChat chat group. Quotations in post from Paul Holt and Jonathan Martinez taken from this chat group. News about kaca’s discovery of Crow-billed Drongo was first disseminated in this chat group. To join Shanghai Birding, fill out the form on our Sightings page.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 14, “Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows.” Highly detailed species accounts for Crow-billed Drongo (p. 212) and Black Drongo (p. 222) written by G.J. Rocamora and D. Yeatman-Berthelot.

MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps. A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press. Entry on Crow-billed Drongo, p. 282.

Message, Stephen & Don Taylor. Waders of Europe, Asia and North America. Refreshed my memory on basic points separating Lesser Sand Plover from Greater Sand Plover.

Robson, Craig. Birds of Southeast Asia. Princeton University Press. Crow-billed Drongo and Black Drongo, p. 176.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5

Editor’s note: The illustration above shows Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers: Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (1), Arctic Warbler (2), Eastern Crowned Warbler (3), Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (4), and Yellow-browed Warbler (5). In this post, I tell you how to separate Pale-legged and its lookalike Sakhalin Leaf Warbler from the others.

Last Sat. 24 Sept. 2016 at Nanhui, my object of observation was Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, one of the Big 5 Leaf Warblers in the Shanghai region. In both spring and autumn, Phylloscopus tenellipes passes through Earth’s greatest city in considerable numbers, giving Shanghai birders ample opportunity to study it. A lookalike species, Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides, also has been noted in Shanghai.

In this post, I shall outline the near-impossibility of distinguishing Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on anything but song, and I will show you some of the traits of “Pale-Sak” that set this species pair apart from other leaf warblers. I also have a roundup of the other birds I noted this past Saturday.

ONLY SONG CAN SAFELY SEPARATE PALE-LEGGED FROM SAKHALIN

Per's PDF, page 11
‘Almost identical’: that’s the judgment of leaf-warbler expert Per Alström on Pale-legged and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler. The page shown here is No. 11 of a 40-page PDF on leaf warblers in China that Professor Alström wrote in 2012. The PDF is a handy introduction to a difficult group and can be downloaded here (13 MB).

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler is safely separable from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler only by song. Every other trait of each can occur in the other. Numerous authorities confirm this. Swedish ornithologist Per Alström calls the two species “almost identical” and “virtually indistinguishable except by song” (1). Mark Brazil says field separation of Pale-Sak is “uncertain,” and he warns readers to “beware light conditions” (2). P. Clement writes that Pale-legged and Sakhalin are “very similar” and claims, dubiously, that the latter is distinguishable from the former “mainly by greener upperparts and lack of wingbars” (3). Clements goes on to describe juvenile Pale-legged as being “more greenish on upperparts,” which begs the question of whether the greenish Pale-Sak one is observing is an adult Sakhalin or a juvenile Pale-legged. Moreover, a quick look at Oriental Bird Images shows many Sakhalin Leaf Warbler with wing bars.

Thankfully for us birders, the songs of the two species are distinctive and provide the basis for a safe ID. The song of Pale-legged, occasionally heard in Shanghai in May, is a cricket-like trill, that of Sakhalin a high-pitched, three-note whistle.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, Boli County, Heilongjiang, 10 June 2016 (02:00, 6.4 MB)

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Zhongshan Park, Shanghai, 5 May 2016 (00:36; 2.2 MB)

One day last May, I heard Pale-legged and Sakhalin singing together in Zhongshan Park–proof that Sakhalin passes through Shanghai. Usually, however, birders here are forced to perform the less than satisfying task of assigning the individuals they see to the category “Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.”

Bottom line: In Shanghai, any Pale-Sak one sees is probably Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, the continental breeder, and not Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, the breeder from the eponymous Russian island plus Hokkaido and Honshu; but to claim certainty about any non-singing individual is the taxonomical version of Russian roulette.

DISTINGUISHING PALE-SAK FROM OTHER LEAF WARBLERS

The Pale-Sak species pair is readily distinguishable from other leaf warblers, in particular the other four members of Shanghai’s Big 5: Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus, Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus, Arctic Warbler P. borealis, and Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus.

Here are a few principles:

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler are plain, mid-sized to large leaf warblers without even the hint of a coronal stripe.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin has no crown stripe.
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler shows no trace of a crown stripe (Panel 1). Yellow-browed Warbler usually shows a faint stripe (2). In Eastern Crowned Warbler (3) and Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (4), the stripe is prominent. (Craig Brelsford)

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler has distinctive pink legs and a short bill with a black smudge on the lower mandible, which is pink at the base and tip.

Bill and legs of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler compared to those of Arctic Leaf Warbler.
Like Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, species in the Arctic Warbler Complex lack a crown stripe and usually show one or two wing bars. One way to distinguish birds from the two groups is by the color of the legs and bill. The legs (Panel 1) of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler are distinctively pale and pink, in contrast to the brownish-yellow legs of the Arctic-type Warbler in 2. Likewise, the slightly shorter bill of Pale-legged/Sakhalin (3) shows a blackish upper mandible and pinkish lower mandible and cutting edge. The black smudge on the lower mandible does not reach the tip. The bill of Arctic-type Warbler (4) follows a similar pattern, but with brownish-yellow replacing pink. (Craig Brelsford)

Even on a fast-moving Pale-Sak in poor light, the pink of the bill and especially of the legs is readily seen. The distinctive pale color of these bare parts is a handy tool for distinguishing Pale-Sak from birds in the Arctic Warbler Complex, which like Pale-Sak lack a crown stripe and usually show one or two wing bars. (The Arctic Warbler Complex consists of Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler P. examinandus, and Japanese Leaf Warbler P. xanthodryas. In Shanghai, Arctic Warbler is the most common of the three, migrating through Shanghai every spring and autumn.) The pink coloration also distinguishes Pale-Sak from Dusky Warbler P.  fuscatus, an uncommon migrant and winter visitor in Shanghai, and the scarce passage migrant Two-barred Warbler P. plumbeitarsus.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler constantly pumps its tail.

The tail of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler pumps independently of other muscular actions.
The tail of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler pumps independently of other muscular actions. In panels 1-2, note that the tail pumps even as the warbler devours an insect. Panels 3-4 show the warbler motionless except for the up-and-down movement of the tail. Photos here and immediately below are of a single individual and were taken at Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

The tail-pumping of Pale-legged/Sakhalin is one of the most distinctive behavioral traits of the species pair. The steady movement usually occurs independently of other muscular actions and is slow enough for the eye to see. The tail-flicking of Arctic Warbler, by contrast, is more spasmodic and is often accompanied by wing-flicking.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler is often found on the lower, thicker branches of trees.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on thick branch.
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on thick branch. More so than other leaf warblers, Pale-Sak is likely to be seen on leafless, thick branches low on the tree.

With its ability to forage along thick branches and not just glean from the underside of leaves, Pale-legged/Sakhalin can remind one of a nuthatch. Other species such as Arctic Warbler use the lower branches, but sustained observation shows Pale-Sak more often in those areas. Note: In May and June 2016, I studied Pale-legged Leaf Warbler on its breeding grounds in Heilongjiang. There, amid trees older and taller than one usually sees in Shanghai, I most often noted the species far above my head, in the mid-canopy.

A NOTE ON CALLS

Except for the silent migrant Eastern Crowned Warbler, Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers all call in both spring and autumn. The calls are distinctive. The metallic “tink” of Pale-Sak contrasts markedly with the “tzit” of Arctic Warbler, the “dweet” of Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, and the “sweet” of Yellow-browed Warbler.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Nanhui, Shanghai, 8 May 2016 (00:15; 1.4 MB)

Arctic Warbler, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 16 May 2015 (00:09; 1.9 MB)

Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 9 May 2014 (00:05; 1.6 MB)

Yellow-browed Warbler, Lesser Yangshan Island, Zhejiang, 24 April 2014 (00:07; 1.7 MB)

Note that, according to Brazil, the call of Pale-Sak only can separate the pair from other species. It cannot be used to separate Pale-legged from Sakhalin. The tink of Pale-legged, Brazil writes, “is probably indistinguishable from Sakhalin Leaf” (2).

UPDATE: 19 OCT. 2016

Editor’s note: This post caught the attention of Philip D. Round, a professor at Mahidol University in Bangkok and an expert on leaf warblers. In an e-mail written 18 Oct. 2016, Dr. Round writes that as discoveries are made and papers published, separating Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on call may become more widespread. Separation on morphology, by contrast, will be much more difficult, though it may eventually turn out to be possible in the hand.

The following paragraphs are from Dr. Round’s e-mail to me:

“I enclose a paper that details the first records of both Kamchatka Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler from Thailand. [Editor’s note: the paper, “Addition of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides to Thailand’s Avifauna,” is available for download through shanghaibirding.com (708 KB).] This has been rather overtaken by events, as we have now caught into the hundreds of Sakhalin LW, mostly on spring passage, and quite a few more Kamchatka. I have an undergraduate student who has carried out DNA assay on about ten percent of all the Pale-legged and Sakhalin LW caught. For many of these we have also recorded call notes on release. When she comes back from overseas study in January 2017 I hope we’ll get a paper out which publishes details of call-note frequency and DNA results for this large sample, which should show the correlation between species and call-note frequency clearly. (Actually this is moderately and anecdotally well-known already. I think either Frank Lambert or Jonathan Martinez was the first to draw my attention to the difference, and it is mentioned by Yap et al. in BirdingASIA with reference to an overwintering Singapore bird.) [Note: Dr. Round is referring to Yap, Francis et al., “First wintering record of the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides in South-East Asia, with notes on vocalisations,” BirdingASIA  21 (2014): 76–81.]

“I am a bit less sanguine on finding means (other than by call frequency or song) to separate all birds. Even in the hand, it is by no means clear. We can pick out long-winged male Sakhalin, and short winged female Pale-legged. But there is more overlap than previously realized, and most are in between. There don’t appear to be any 100% consistent wing-formula differences, and plumage and bare-part features, while somewhat indicative, are again less then 100% reliable–especially under field conditions. But probably we are missing something. The next thing to do is to apply PCA or some other multivariate analysis to figure out reliable means of separation of birds in the hand from our large sample, and also to use the information we have to figure out differences in the timing of passage of the two spp.”

ROUNDUP FOR SATURDAY 24 SEPT. 2016

Stimulating discussions about leaf warblers enlivened the lulls on a day in which my wife Elaine Du and I once again partnered with veteran British birder Michael Grunwell. We noted 69 species, starting at the sod farm south of Pudong airport then spending the rest of the day at Nanhui. We reunited briefly with the Sino-German birding duo of Xueping and Stephan Popp, and we met Dutch birder Benjamin Muis. Highlights:

Ruff

Ruff, by Elaine Du.
Note the scaly upperparts and buffy head of this juvenile Ruff, as well as the white sides to its tail. Elaine got these shots with my iPhone 6 plus Swarovski ATX-95 spotting scope mounted atop our Manfrotto head and Gitzo tripod.

Juvenile spotted on mudflats at high tide. A far-northern, trans-Eurasian breeder, Philomachus pugnax is a scarce passage migrant in Shanghai. Amid the greenshanks and godwits, the Ruff stood out with its buff-washed head and scaly upperparts. Juvenile Ruff resembles Buff-breasted Sandpiper, a much smaller American bird that we quickly ruled out.

Eurasian Hobby

Peregrine Falcon, Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016.
Eurasian Hobby, Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016.

1 juv. Earlier mis’ID as Peregrine Falcon; corrected 3 Oct. 2016. Thanks to the commenters below for pointing out the error.

White-winged Tern

A week ago ca. 2500, on Saturday only 10. Coastal birding is a parade of change, especially in migration season.

Other goodies: Eurasian Wryneck 2, Japanese Paradise Flycatcher 6, Amur Paradise Flycatcher 1, Richard’s Pipit 5, White’s Thrush 5 first-of-season, Rufous-tailed Robin 1 first-of-season. We introduced Benjamin to Reed Parrotbill calling unseen from the reeds below, we had a strong count of 16 Blue-and-white Flycatcher, and we noted two endangered species: Far Eastern Curlew and Yellow-breasted Bunting.

Day Lists
My first reference is IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 2 for Sat. 24 Sept. 2016 (10 species). Birds noted at sod farm south of Pudong International Airport (31.112586, 121.824742), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Sunny. Low 18° C, high 26° C. Humidity 71%. Visibility 10 km. Wind ESE 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 98 (moderate). Sunrise 05:44, sunset 17:46. SAT 24 SEP 2016 06:05-06:20. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Little Egret Egretta garzetta 2
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 3
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius 50
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 3
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola 1
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 2
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 2
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis tschutschensis ca. 50
White Wagtail M. alba leucopsis 6
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 4

List 2 of 2 for Sat. 24 Sept. 2016 (66 species)

Microforest 4
Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Saturday. This is the largest of the eight microforests at Nanhui and an astonishingly effective migrant trap. With woodland birds migrating through and trees all around, one almost begins to forget that this speck of woodland is just a stone’s throw from the mudflats and the East China Sea. German birder Kai Pflug recently carted out trash from the wood, enhancing its allure. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Includes birds found along coastal road between 31.000204, 121.938145 & 30.851114, 121.848527, in particular Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083). Sunny. Low 18° C, high 26° C. Humidity 71%. Visibility 10 km. Wind ESE 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 98 (moderate). Sunrise 05:44, sunset 17:46. SAT 24 SEP 2016 06:40-17:35. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope 5
Eurasian Teal A. crecca ca. 300
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 5
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 40
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 1
Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis 1
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 30
Great Egret A. alba 13
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 2
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 12
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 20
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 4
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 10
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 8
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 5
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 5
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 1
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 100
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis 1
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa melanuroides 14
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis 20
Dunlin C. alpina 30
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus 4
Spotted Redshank T. erythropus 4
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 30
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 8
Common Redshank T. totanus 5
Ruff Philomachus pugnax 1
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus 10
Whiskered Tern C. hybrida 5
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 5
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 6
Cuculus sp. 4
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 2
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo 1 juv.
Black-winged Cuckooshrike Coracina melaschistos 1
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus 3
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 28
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis 1
Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus 1
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 6
Amur Paradise Flycatcher T. incei 1
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula 3
Sand/Pale Martin Riparia riparia/diluta 1
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ca. 200
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 4
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 1
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes/borealoides 10
Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus 5
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 1
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 2
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 1
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 2
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 5
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica 1
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. dauurica 8
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 16
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 1
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius philippensis 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 100
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 4
White Wagtail M. alba 4
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 1
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 1

WORKS CITED

(1) Alström, Per. Identification of Phylloscopus & Seicercus Warblers in China. Notes from presentation given to Beijing Birdwatching Society in November 2012. PDF downloadable here (13 MB). Click here for a 5 MB zip archive containing all 40 pages of the report in JPEG form. Those pages can be synced to your smartphone like photographs and consulted in the field.

(2) Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press, p. 358.

(3) del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 11, “Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers,” species accounts for Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (p. 663) and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler (p. 664) written by P. Clement.

Meet Kai Pflug, Nanhui’s Mr. Clean

Let’s hear it for Kai Pflug! The Shanghai-based German birder has taken it upon himself to clean up Nanhui, Shanghai’s best-known birding area. On Sun. 11 Sept. 2016, Kai hauled out two bagfuls of trash from Nanhui’s Microforest 2 (30.926138, 121.970795), and I’m proud to say my wife Elaine Du helped Kai out on Microforest 1. Kai has long been cleaning the microforests, and his work has had a big effect on those precious migrant traps.

In his car, Kai keeps six pairs of tongs as well as a roll of plastic bags. Kai told me he uses tongs “to show others that it’s possible to clean up trash without getting your hands dirty!” He keeps six pairs so that others can join him in his quest to keep the microforests clean.

Photographers await Fairy Pitta on Sunday in Microforest 2.
Photographers await Fairy Pitta in Microforest 2.

As if his work on the trash weren’t enough, Kai further burnished his eco-credentials Sunday morning at Microforest 2. There, about 30 photographers have set up camp to photograph Fairy Pitta, a species that has been present in the tiny wood since early September. Someone had speared mealworms onto a metal hook. The hook could rip the mouth of a hungry pitta. Kai spied the hook, marched into the setup, and tore it down. In his good Chinese, the product of 12 years living in this country, Kai explained to the surprised photographers, “This isn’t good! It can kill birds.”

A Fairy Pitta leaps toward a food item at the photography setup in Microforest 2, 11 Sept. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
A Fairy Pitta leaps toward a food item at the photography setup in Microforest 2, 11 Sept. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.

Kai’s actions Sunday were the backdrop to an eventful birding day. Partnering yet again with veteran British birder Michael Grunwell, Elaine and I noted 75 species. We birded the well-known coastal sites at Nanhui as well as the sod farm south of Pudong Airport. We had our first migrant bunting of the season, endangered Yellow-breasted Bunting; Himalayan Swiftlet in the skies above the Magic Parking Lot (30.882784, 121.972782); and Pechora Pipit in the wet agricultural land north of Lúcháo (芦潮; 30.851111, 121.848528).

Other goodies were Lesser Coucal catching a frog, Asian Stubtail joining Fairy Pitta at the photography setup, and season’s first Yellow-browed Warbler, Siberian Thrush, and Blue-and-white Flycatcher. We had Green Sandpiper, Grey-tailed Tattler, and a migrating flock of Red Turtle Dove near the Pechoras and Eurasian Wryneck in the recently planted trees on the inner base of the sea wall. The microforests yielded a second Fairy Pitta, 8 Black-naped Oriole, 7 Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, and a good count of 12 Siberian Blue Robin.

This Black-naped Oriole, one of eight we found Sunday at Nanhui, was in full migration mode and very hungry. A forest dweller, Black-naped Oriole is usually among the shyest of birds, but this juvenile was foraging in the open and allowed us to approach while it searched frantically for food. It even sampled a flower petal!
This Black-naped Oriole, one of eight we found Sunday at Nanhui, was in full migration mode and very hungry. A forest dweller, Black-naped Oriole is usually among the shyest of birds, but this juvenile was foraging in the open and allowed us to approach while it searched frantically for food. It even sampled a flower petal!

Our trip to the sod farm was cut short by rain. Before the shower we noted ca. 800 Oriental Pratincole. Obviously this grassy area is important to the species, which breeds in the Shanghai region and which with the development of Pudong has seen a dramatic shrinkage of its territory.

On Mon. 5 Sept. Elaine and I did our first urban birding of the season at Shanghai’s Century Park. Among the 24 species we noted were passage migrants Oriental Dollarbird, Asian Brown Flycatcher, and Grey-streaked Flycatcher.

Siberian Blue Robin, among the 12 we found Sunday in the microforests of Nanhui. In Nanhui one usually views these secretive birds from a distance and obscured by branches and leaves, as shown in the two left-hand panels. On their breeding grounds in Heilongjiang, <a href="http://www.shanghaibirding.com/explorations/boli-may-june-2016/" target="_blank">where this past spring Elaine and I studied Siberian Blue Robin and other northeast China breeders</a>, one is lucky to get even this good a view.
Siberian Blue Robin, among the 12 we found Sunday in the microforests of Nanhui. In Nanhui one usually views these secretive birds from a distance and obscured by branches and leaves, as shown in the two left-hand panels. On their breeding grounds in Heilongjiang, where this past spring Elaine and I studied Siberian Blue Robin and other northeast China breeders, one is lucky to get even this good a view.

Day Lists
My first reference is IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 1 for Mon. 5 Sept. 2016 (24 species). Century Park (Shìjì Gōngyuán [世纪公园]; 31.219361, 121.551900), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Most cloudy with drizzle; low 23° C, high 29° C. Visibility 10 km. Wind E 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 87 (moderate). Sunrise 05:33, sunset 18:11. MON 05 SEP 2016 14:10-17:00. Craig Brelsford & Elaine Du.

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 5 (3 juvs.)
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 1
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 12
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 6 (ads. & juvs.)
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove ) Columba livia 6
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 25
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops 1
Oriental Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis 1
Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major 1
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus 3
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 9
Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus 65 (ads. & juvs.)
Japanese Tit Parus minor 5
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 40 (ads. & juvs.)
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 61
Chinese Hwamei Garrulax canorus 3
Red-billed Starling Spodiopsar sericeus 1
Chinese Blackbird Turdus mandarinus 65 (ads. & juvs.)
Grey-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta 1
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. dauurica 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 15
White Wagtail Motacilla alba leucopsis 3
Chinese Grosbeak Eophona migratoria 8

List 1 of 2 for Sun. 11 Sept. 2016 (73 species)

Lesser Coucal with prey, Nanhui, 11 Sept. 2016.
Lesser Coucal with prey.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Includes birds found along Shijitang Road between 31.000204, 121.938145 & 30.851114, 121.848527, among them Microforest 1 (30.924008, 121.971712) & Microforest 2 (30.926138, 121.970795). Cloudy, turning rainy. Low 21° C, high 27° C. Visibility 10 km. Wind ENE 12 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 132 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:36, sunset 18:03. SUN 11 SEP 2016 06:25-15:05. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Garganey Anas querquedula 30
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 42
Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis 1
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 15
Great Egret A. alba 2
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 4
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 110
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 6
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 6
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 8
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 1
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 20
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa melanuroides 1
Broad-billed Sandpiper Calidris falcinellus 1
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper C. acuminata 25
Long-toed Stint C. subminuta 1
Red-necked Stint C. ruficollis 12
Dunlin C. alpina 15
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 12
Pin-tailed/Swinhoe’s Snipe  G. stenura/megala 15
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus 1
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus 1
Grey-tailed Tattler T. brevipes 1
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 3
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 8
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 30
Little Tern Sternula albifrons 10
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica 2
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus 50
Whiskered Tern C. hybrida 10
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 2
Red Turtle Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica 11 (flock)
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 8
Lesser Coucal Centropus bengalensis 1
Cuculus sp. 10
Himalayan Swiftlet Aerodramus brevirostris 1
Pacific Swift Apus pacificus 15
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 1
Fairy Pitta Pitta nympha 2
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus 19
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 32
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis 8
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 7
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ca. 200
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 10
Asian Stubtail Urosphena squameiceps 1
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 2
Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler P. borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas 6
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes/borealoides 12
Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus 8
Oriental Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orientalis 3
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 4
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 7
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 4
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 30
Grey-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta 1
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. dauurica 6
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 2
Siberian Blue Robin Larvivora cyane 12
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia 1
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius philippensis 1
Siberian Thrush Geokichla sibirica 2
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 8
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 17
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 120
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis tschutschensis 50
White Wagtail M. alba leucopsis 5
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 2
Pechora Pipit A. gustavi 2
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 1

List 2 of 2 for Sun. 11 Sept. 2016 (8 species). Birds noted at sod farm south of Pudong International Airport (31.112586, 121.824742), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Cloudy, turning rainy. Low 21° C, high 27° C. Visibility 10 km. Wind ENE 12 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 132 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:36, sunset 18:03. SUN 11 SEP 2016 15:30-16:10. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius ca. 200
Long-toed Stint Calidris subminuta 1
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 20
Pin-tailed/Swinhoe’s Snipe G. stenura/megala 10
Common/Pin-tailed/Swinhoe’s Snipe G. gallinago/stenura/megala 30
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 8
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola 2
Oriental Pratincole Glareola maldivarum ca. 800
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis tschutschensis ca. 50

Featured image: Kai Pflug picks up litter at Microforest 1, Nanhui, Shanghai, 11 Sept. 2016. Photos by Craig Brelsford.