Asian Rosy Finch Leucosticte arctoa ranges from Siberia to Japan, with arctoa in northwestern Xinjiang and brunneonucha breeding in northeastern Inner Mongolia and western Heilongjiang and wintering south to Hebei. Breeds on rocky tundra above treeline, to about 3000 m in China; in winter to sea level. Large, stout, large-billed and long-winged finch. Breeding male brunneonucha has lores, forehead to crown, and chin blackish; rear crown and nape pale brown, grading to brown on grey-streaked mantle. Rump dark brown with pink, black and white scaling. Wings blackish with pinkish and white edges. Notched tail black, edged white. Underparts blackish-brown with grey spotting on throat and breast, and pink on belly and flanks. Undertail coverts centered black, tipped pink and white. Female duller and slightly paler (paler edges to dark body feathers), with pink only on edges of median and outer greater coverts, and rear flanks. Winter birds paler, with buffy-rufous rear crown, nape and nuchal collar. Race arctoa male has almost entire body blackish (dark brown streaked black on mantle and back; no pink in plumage); supercilium and sides of face streked whitish; rump, vent andfolded wing almost entirely whitish. Bill black in summer, yellow tipped black in winter; feet greyish-black. Twittering song, given from atop rock or in descending circular flight; call with a single “chew” or dry chirps. — Craig Brelsford
Daniel Bengtsson served as chief ornithological consultant for Craig Brelsford’s Photographic Field Guide to the Birds of China, from which this species description is drawn.