Swinhoe’s Rail in Shanghai

The rarities just keep on coming here in Shanghai. The latest is Swinhoe’s Rail, seen at the Magic Parking Lot in Nanhui on Sat. 29 Oct. 2016 by a trio of Shanghai bird photographers. The photo above was taken by one of the three, Chén Qí (陈骐).

This amazing find comes on the heels of Shanghai’s first record of Crow-billed Drongo on 11 Oct. and Pomarine Skua on 19 Oct. What a birding month October 2016 was in Earth’s largest city!

Swinhoe's Rail Coturnicops exquisitus, Magic Parking Lot, Nanhui, Shanghai, Sat. 29 Oct. 2016. One of the rarest birds in China. Photographed by Shanghai photographer Chén Qí (陈骐; net name 上海爷胡子). © 2016 by Chén Qí. Used with permission.
Swinhoe’s Rail Coturnicops exquisitus, Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), Nanhui, Sat. 29 Oct. 2016. Photographed by Shanghai photographer Chén Qí (陈骐; net name 上海爷胡子). © 2016 by Chén Qí.

I got the news about the rail from Chén Qí’s wife, Wāng Yàjīng (汪亚菁). Near dark, as I was returning home after my own eventful day at Nanhui, Wāng Yàjīng called me to report that she had just seen a strange bird. The bird, Yàjīng said, popped its head out of the bushes at the well-known photographers’ setup at the edge of the lot. It showed half its body and disappeared. The episode lasted a few seconds, Yàjīng said.

One look at the photo Yàjīng sent me, and there was no doubt: Swinhoe’s Rail.

The smallest rail in the world, Swinhoe’s Rail is also one of the least-known. The IUCN lists it as Vulnerable.

On Sun. 30 Oct. 2016, photographers maintaining a long vigil saw the rail again.

ANOTHER UNUSUAL SIGHTING: BLACK-NAPED MONARCH

Black-naped Monarch, Wusong-Paotaiwan Park, Shanghai. Photo by Kai Pflug.
Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea. Photo by Kai Pflug.

The next day, Sun. 30 Oct. 2016, Kai Pflug found Black-naped Monarch at Wusong-Paotaiwan Wetland Park in Shanghai. Kai was acting on information from Chinese bird photographers who had discovered the bird earlier. The monarch is almost certainly wild. It is a first-winter bird, not the more beautiful adult male that presumably would be of greater interest to collectors, and in Kai’s photos one sees none of the damage common to birds kept in a cage.

Black-naped Monarch has been noted in Shanghai before, most recently on 2 Nov. 2014 by Stephan Popp and Xueping Popp. In China, H. a. styani usually ventures no further north than Guangdong. H. a. oberholseri is resident in Taiwan.

For more records of unusual birds in the Shanghai area, see our Sightings page.

88 SPECIES FOR US

Siberian Rubythroat, Magic Parking Lot, Nanhui. 29 Oct. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
On Saturday this Siberian Rubythroat mesmerized photographers at the Magic Parking Lot for hours. (Craig Brelsford)

You know your birding area is rich when Nordmann’s Greenshank fails to capture the headline. On Sat. 29 Oct. 2016, the day the Swinhoe’s Rail electrified Shanghai birders, my partners Michael Grunwell, Elaine Du, and I spotted the Endangered Nordmann’s in the defunct nature reserve (30.920500, 121.973167) at Nanhui, near the skua site at 30.923915, 121.954738. We speculate that Saturday’s adult-winter Nordmann’s is the same individual we saw in the area on 15 Oct. and 20 Oct. and possibly as far back as 17 Sept. and 3 Sept.

Other highlights Saturday were 54 Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill found exclusively in the defunct nature reserve, further underscoring the critical importance of that highly threatened parcel of land. Joining Nordmann’s in the high-tide roost were 2 Ruff, a Near Threatened Red Knot, and 2 of our day’s 4 Saunders’s Gull, a Vulnerable species uncommon in Shanghai.

Long-eared Owl, Magic GPS Point, Saturday. Sharp-eyed Chén Qí spotted the owl and called us over. (Craig Brelsford)
Long-eared Owl, Magic GPS Point, Saturday. Sharp-eyed Chén Qí spotted the owl and called us over. (Craig Brelsford)

We had Japanese Grosbeak in Microforest 8 and Long-eared Owl at the Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551). Among our season’s firsts were 2 Tundra Bean Goose, Black-necked Grebe, 5 Goldcrest, Manchurian/Japanese Bush Warbler, 3 Brown-flanked Bush Warbler, and 2 Dusky Thrush. Buntings finally are arriving in numbers, with Yellow-throated Bunting (16) and Chestnut Bunting (3) debuting on our Autumn 2016 list. We had a lucky 88 species in all.

Daurian Redstart, Microforest 1, Nanhui, 29 Oct. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)
Daurian Redstart, Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635), Nanhui, 29 Oct. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

Throughout the day, the effectiveness of the Nanhui microforests was on display at Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635). The tiny wood, which we visited off and on, was hopping with hungry migrants, grounded on a breezy day. Brambling, Daurian Redstart, and Yellow-bellied Tit were the tamest, but as the day wore on even shy species such as Japanese Thrush, Grey-backed Thrush, and Black-winged Cuckooshrike were coming out into the open. Photographers were present, but no one was using mealworms; the forest birds were attracted solely to the habitat offered by a stand of trees no bigger than a tennis court.

Two East Asian species of Turdus thrush in Microforest 1. 1a-1c: Japanese Thrush Turdus cardis, male. 2, 3a, 4a: Japanese Thrush, female. 3b, 4b: Grey-backed Thrush T. hortulorum. Male T. cardis distinguished from Chinese Blackbird T. mandarinus by smaller size and white belly covered with black arrowheads. Japanese and Grey-backed females are harder to separate (3a, 3b), in part because both are shy and rarely come into the open. In Japanese, the arrowheads run farther down the flanks (4a) than in Grey-backed (4b). 4a: Nanhui, 7 Nov. 2015. 4b: Yangkou, Jiangsu, 4 Oct. 2013. All others Microforest 1, Nanhui, 29 Oct. 2016. All by Craig Brelsford.

Other microforests held Eurasian Woodcock, Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, Rufous-tailed Robin, Taiga Flycatcher, and White’s Thrush, Eyebrowed Thrush, and Pale Thrush. Dark-sided Flycatcher and Siberian Rubythroat were at the Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), Asian Stubtail at the Magic GPS Point.

We netted season’s first Buff-bellied Pipit during a 35-minute stop at the sod farm near Pudong Airport (31.112586, 121.824742). Red-throated Pipit were present in smaller numbers (3) than six days earlier.

Day Lists
Lists are generated on eBird then adjusted to comport with my first reference, the IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 2 for Sat. 29 Oct. 2016 (9 species)

Comparison of Shanghai-area pipits in winter plumage. 1, 3a, 4b: Buff-bellied Pipit. 2: Water Pipit. 3b: Red-throated Pipit. 4a: Olive-backed Pipit. (Craig Brelsford)
Comparison of non-breeding Buff-bellied Pipit Anthus rubescens japonicus with other Shanghai-area pipits. Buff-bellied is mainly greyish-brown above with a poorly streaked mantle, pale lores, and yellowish-pink legs (Panel 1). Water Pipit A. spinoletta blakistoni has brownish-black legs and a smudge on its lores (2). Buff-bellied Pipit (3a) shows much less streaking on mantle and crown than Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus (3b). Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni hodgsoni/yunnanensis (4a) shows two spots on the ear coverts: a whitish spot in the upper rear corner and a black spot below it. Olive-backed Pipit has a supercilium buffish before the eye and white behind it. Buff-bellied Pipit (4b) has unspotted ear coverts and a supercilium buffish or whitish throughout. 1, 3a: sod farm near Pudong Airport (31.112586, 121.824742), Shanghai, 29 Oct. 2016. 2a: Near Wucheng Zhen (吴城镇; 29.180555, 116.010175), Poyang Lake area, Jiangxi, 8 Nov. 2014. 3b: Nanhui, Shanghai, 24 Jan. 2016. 4a: Yangkou, Jiangsu, 3 May 2014. 4b: Hengsha Island, Shanghai, 29 Nov. 2015. All by Craig Brelsford.

Birds noted at sod farm south of Pudong International Airport (31.112586, 121.824742), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Mostly cloudy, breezy. Low 13° C, high 18° C. Humidity 75%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind N 15 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 85 (moderate). Sunrise 06:08, sunset 17:06. SAT 29 OCT 2016 06:55-07:30. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 3
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops 1
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 2
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 15
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 12
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 1
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 3
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens japonicus 20

List 2 of 2 for Sat. 29 Oct. 2016 (83 species)

Brambling, Nanhui, Shanghai, 29 Oct. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)
Brambling, Nanhui, 29 Oct. 2016. We found these birds in Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635). Famished after the long flight south, the bramblings were very tame, allowing me to get these close-ups. Male Fringilla montifringilla (R) shows marked variation between breeding and non-breeding plumage; the female (L) shows less. All plumages show a white rump (L). Breeding male has an all-black bill, but in winter the bill is yellow with a black tip, like the female. The glossy blue-black head of breeding male becomes rusty-fringed in winter. Brambling breed across Eurasia and are present throughout the winter in Shanghai. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. List includes birds found at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). Mostly cloudy, breezy. Low 13° C, high 18° C. Humidity 75%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind N 15 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 85 (moderate). Sunrise 06:08, sunset 17:06. SAT 29 OCT 2016 07:55-17:00. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Tundra Bean Goose Anser serrirostris 2
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope 32
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 6
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 300
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 31
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 200
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 15
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 40
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 20
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 20
Black-necked Grebe P. nigricollis 1
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 20
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 60
Great Egret A. alba 3
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 1
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 150
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 8
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 54
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 1
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 30
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 1
Pacific Golden Plover P. fulva 1
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus 50
Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus 700
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa 3
Red Knot Calidris canutus 1
Ruff C. pugnax 2
Broad-billed Sandpiper C. falcinellus 2
Red-necked Stint C. ruficollis 1
Dunlin C. alpina 200
Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola 1
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus 1
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 70
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 30
Nordmann’s Greenshank T. guttifer 1
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 10
Saunders’s Gull Chroicocephalus saundersi 4
Vega Gull Vega Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 5
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus heuglini 1
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica 1
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia 3
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 10
Long-eared Owl Asio otus 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 1
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 2
Black-winged Cuckooshrike Coracina melaschistos 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 10
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 1
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 20
Yellow-bellied Tit Periparus venustulus 6
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 20
Goldcrest Regulus regulus 5
Asian Stubtail Urosphena squameiceps 1
Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians/H. borealis borealis 1
Brown-flanked Bush Warbler H. fortipes 3
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 2
Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus 3
Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler P. borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas 4
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 2
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 6
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 5
Japanese Thrush T. cardis 8
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 2
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 5
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 2
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica 1
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 6
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 12
Taiga Flycatcher Ficedula albicilla 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 18
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 1
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 18
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 2
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 100
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla 6
Grey-capped Greenfinch Chloris sinica 1
Japanese Grosbeak Eophona personata 1
Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami 5
Yellow-throated Bunting E. elegans 16
Chestnut Bunting E. rutila 3
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 3

WORKS CONSULTED

Alström, Per, Krister Mild & Bill Zetterström. Pipits and Wagtails. Princeton University Press, 2003. This landmark book, co-authored by Shanghai Birding member Per Alström, is my first reference on all things Motacillidae. Of particular use was p. 56, “Water Pipit and Allies (in fresh winter plumage).”

Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.
Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.

Brelsford, Craig, moderator. Shanghai Birding, a WeChat chat group. Rough drafts for parts of this post were written by Craig on Shanghai Birding. News about the rail was first circulated on Shanghai Birding. To join Shanghai Birding, fill out the form on our Sightings page.

Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press, 2009. Thrushes and pipits.

Svensson, Lars & Killian Mullarney & Dan Zetterström. Collins Bird Guide, 2nd ed. HarperCollins, 1999-2009. Outstanding illustrations of pipits by Mullarney.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler & the Shanghai Big 5

Editor’s note: The illustration above shows Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers: Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (1), Arctic Warbler (2), Eastern Crowned Warbler (3), Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (4), and Yellow-browed Warbler (5). In this post, I tell you how to separate Pale-legged and its lookalike Sakhalin Leaf Warbler from the others.

Last Sat. 24 Sept. 2016 at Nanhui, my object of observation was Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, one of the Big 5 Leaf Warblers in the Shanghai region. In both spring and autumn, Phylloscopus tenellipes passes through Earth’s greatest city in considerable numbers, giving Shanghai birders ample opportunity to study it. A lookalike species, Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides, also has been noted in Shanghai.

In this post, I shall outline the near-impossibility of distinguishing Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on anything but song, and I will show you some of the traits of “Pale-Sak” that set this species pair apart from other leaf warblers. I also have a roundup of the other birds I noted this past Saturday.

ONLY SONG CAN SAFELY SEPARATE PALE-LEGGED FROM SAKHALIN

Per's PDF, page 11
‘Almost identical’: that’s the judgment of leaf-warbler expert Per Alström on Pale-legged and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler. The page shown here is No. 11 of a 40-page PDF on leaf warblers in China that Professor Alström wrote in 2012. The PDF is a handy introduction to a difficult group and can be downloaded here (13 MB).

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler is safely separable from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler only by song. Every other trait of each can occur in the other. Numerous authorities confirm this. Swedish ornithologist Per Alström calls the two species “almost identical” and “virtually indistinguishable except by song” (1). Mark Brazil says field separation of Pale-Sak is “uncertain,” and he warns readers to “beware light conditions” (2). P. Clement writes that Pale-legged and Sakhalin are “very similar” and claims, dubiously, that the latter is distinguishable from the former “mainly by greener upperparts and lack of wingbars” (3). Clements goes on to describe juvenile Pale-legged as being “more greenish on upperparts,” which begs the question of whether the greenish Pale-Sak one is observing is an adult Sakhalin or a juvenile Pale-legged. Moreover, a quick look at Oriental Bird Images shows many Sakhalin Leaf Warbler with wing bars.

Thankfully for us birders, the songs of the two species are distinctive and provide the basis for a safe ID. The song of Pale-legged, occasionally heard in Shanghai in May, is a cricket-like trill, that of Sakhalin a high-pitched, three-note whistle.

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, Boli County, Heilongjiang, 10 June 2016 (02:00, 6.4 MB)

Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Zhongshan Park, Shanghai, 5 May 2016 (00:36; 2.2 MB)

One day last May, I heard Pale-legged and Sakhalin singing together in Zhongshan Park–proof that Sakhalin passes through Shanghai. Usually, however, birders here are forced to perform the less than satisfying task of assigning the individuals they see to the category “Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.”

Bottom line: In Shanghai, any Pale-Sak one sees is probably Pale-legged Leaf Warbler, the continental breeder, and not Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, the breeder from the eponymous Russian island plus Hokkaido and Honshu; but to claim certainty about any non-singing individual is the taxonomical version of Russian roulette.

DISTINGUISHING PALE-SAK FROM OTHER LEAF WARBLERS

The Pale-Sak species pair is readily distinguishable from other leaf warblers, in particular the other four members of Shanghai’s Big 5: Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus, Yellow-browed Warbler P. inornatus, Arctic Warbler P. borealis, and Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus.

Here are a few principles:

Pale-legged Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler are plain, mid-sized to large leaf warblers without even the hint of a coronal stripe.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin has no crown stripe.
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler shows no trace of a crown stripe (Panel 1). Yellow-browed Warbler usually shows a faint stripe (2). In Eastern Crowned Warbler (3) and Pallas’s Leaf Warbler (4), the stripe is prominent. (Craig Brelsford)

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler has distinctive pink legs and a short bill with a black smudge on the lower mandible, which is pink at the base and tip.

Bill and legs of Pale-legged Leaf Warbler compared to those of Arctic Leaf Warbler.
Like Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, species in the Arctic Warbler Complex lack a crown stripe and usually show one or two wing bars. One way to distinguish birds from the two groups is by the color of the legs and bill. The legs (Panel 1) of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler are distinctively pale and pink, in contrast to the brownish-yellow legs of the Arctic-type Warbler in 2. Likewise, the slightly shorter bill of Pale-legged/Sakhalin (3) shows a blackish upper mandible and pinkish lower mandible and cutting edge. The black smudge on the lower mandible does not reach the tip. The bill of Arctic-type Warbler (4) follows a similar pattern, but with brownish-yellow replacing pink. (Craig Brelsford)

Even on a fast-moving Pale-Sak in poor light, the pink of the bill and especially of the legs is readily seen. The distinctive pale color of these bare parts is a handy tool for distinguishing Pale-Sak from birds in the Arctic Warbler Complex, which like Pale-Sak lack a crown stripe and usually show one or two wing bars. (The Arctic Warbler Complex consists of Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler P. examinandus, and Japanese Leaf Warbler P. xanthodryas. In Shanghai, Arctic Warbler is the most common of the three, migrating through Shanghai every spring and autumn.) The pink coloration also distinguishes Pale-Sak from Dusky Warbler P.  fuscatus, an uncommon migrant and winter visitor in Shanghai, and the scarce passage migrant Two-barred Warbler P. plumbeitarsus.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler constantly pumps its tail.

The tail of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler pumps independently of other muscular actions.
The tail of Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler pumps independently of other muscular actions. In panels 1-2, note that the tail pumps even as the warbler devours an insect. Panels 3-4 show the warbler motionless except for the up-and-down movement of the tail. Photos here and immediately below are of a single individual and were taken at Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016. (Craig Brelsford)

The tail-pumping of Pale-legged/Sakhalin is one of the most distinctive behavioral traits of the species pair. The steady movement usually occurs independently of other muscular actions and is slow enough for the eye to see. The tail-flicking of Arctic Warbler, by contrast, is more spasmodic and is often accompanied by wing-flicking.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler is often found on the lower, thicker branches of trees.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on thick branch.
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on thick branch. More so than other leaf warblers, Pale-Sak is likely to be seen on leafless, thick branches low on the tree.

With its ability to forage along thick branches and not just glean from the underside of leaves, Pale-legged/Sakhalin can remind one of a nuthatch. Other species such as Arctic Warbler use the lower branches, but sustained observation shows Pale-Sak more often in those areas. Note: In May and June 2016, I studied Pale-legged Leaf Warbler on its breeding grounds in Heilongjiang. There, amid trees older and taller than one usually sees in Shanghai, I most often noted the species far above my head, in the mid-canopy.

A NOTE ON CALLS

Except for the silent migrant Eastern Crowned Warbler, Shanghai’s Big 5 Leaf Warblers all call in both spring and autumn. The calls are distinctive. The metallic “tink” of Pale-Sak contrasts markedly with the “tzit” of Arctic Warbler, the “dweet” of Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, and the “sweet” of Yellow-browed Warbler.

Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler, Nanhui, Shanghai, 8 May 2016 (00:15; 1.4 MB)

Arctic Warbler, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 16 May 2015 (00:09; 1.9 MB)

Pallas’s Leaf Warbler, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 9 May 2014 (00:05; 1.6 MB)

Yellow-browed Warbler, Lesser Yangshan Island, Zhejiang, 24 April 2014 (00:07; 1.7 MB)

Note that, according to Brazil, the call of Pale-Sak only can separate the pair from other species. It cannot be used to separate Pale-legged from Sakhalin. The tink of Pale-legged, Brazil writes, “is probably indistinguishable from Sakhalin Leaf” (2).

UPDATE: 19 OCT. 2016

Editor’s note: This post caught the attention of Dr. Philip D. Round, a professor at Mahidol University in Bangkok and an expert on leaf warblers. In an e-mail written 18 Oct. 2016, Round writes that as discoveries are made and papers published, separating Pale-legged Leaf Warbler from Sakhalin Leaf Warbler on call may become more widespread. Separation on morphology, by contrast, will be much more difficult, though it may eventually turn out to be possible in the hand.

The following paragraphs are from Round’s e-mail to me:

“I enclose a paper that details the first records of both Kamchatka Leaf Warbler and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler from Thailand. [Editor’s note: the paper, “Addition of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides to Thailand’s Avifauna,” is available for download through shanghaibirding.com (708 KB).] This has been rather overtaken by events, as we have now caught into the hundreds of Sakhalin LW, mostly on spring passage, and quite a few more Kamchatka. I have an undergraduate student who has carried out DNA assay on about ten percent of all the Pale-legged and Sakhalin LW caught. For many of these we have also recorded call notes on release. When she comes back from overseas study in January 2017 I hope we’ll get a paper out which publishes details of call-note frequency and DNA results for this large sample, which should show the correlation between species and call-note frequency clearly. (Actually this is moderately and anecdotally well-known already. I think either Frank Lambert or Jonathan Martinez was the first to draw my attention to the difference, and it is mentioned by Yap et al. in BirdingASIA with reference to an overwintering Singapore bird.) [Note: Round is referring to Yap, Francis et al., “First wintering record of the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides in South-East Asia, with notes on vocalisations,” BirdingASIA  21 (2014): 76–81.]

“I am a bit less sanguine on finding means (other than by call frequency or song) to separate all birds. Even in the hand, it is by no means clear. We can pick out long-winged male Sakhalin, and short winged female Pale-legged. But there is more overlap than previously realized, and most are in between. There don’t appear to be any 100% consistent wing-formula differences, and plumage and bare-part features, while somewhat indicative, are again less then 100% reliable–especially under field conditions. But probably we are missing something. The next thing to do is to apply PCA or some other multivariate analysis to figure out reliable means of separation of birds in the hand from our large sample, and also to use the information we have to figure out differences in the timing of passage of the two spp.”

ROUNDUP FOR SATURDAY 24 SEPT. 2016

Stimulating discussions about leaf warblers enlivened the lulls on a day in which my wife Elaine Du and I once again partnered with veteran British birder Michael Grunwell. We noted 69 species, starting at the sod farm south of Pudong airport then spending the rest of the day at Nanhui. We reunited briefly with the Sino-German birding duo of Xueping and Stephan Popp, and we met Dutch birder Benjamin Muis. Highlights:

Ruff

Ruff, by Elaine Du.
Note the scaly upperparts and buffy head of this juvenile Ruff, as well as the white sides to its tail. Elaine got these shots with my iPhone 6 plus Swarovski ATX-95 spotting scope mounted atop our Manfrotto head and Gitzo tripod.

Juvenile spotted on mudflats at high tide. A far-northern, trans-Eurasian breeder, Philomachus pugnax is a scarce passage migrant in Shanghai. Amid the greenshanks and godwits, the Ruff stood out with its buff-washed head and scaly upperparts. Juvenile Ruff resembles Buff-breasted Sandpiper, a much smaller American bird that we quickly ruled out.

Eurasian Hobby

Peregrine Falcon, Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016.
Eurasian Hobby, Nanhui, 24 Sept. 2016.

1 juv. Earlier mis’ID as Peregrine Falcon; corrected 3 Oct. 2016. Thanks to the commenters below for pointing out the error.

White-winged Tern

A week ago ca. 2500, on Saturday only 10. Coastal birding is a parade of change, especially in migration season.

Other goodies: Eurasian Wryneck 2, Japanese Paradise Flycatcher 6, Amur Paradise Flycatcher 1, Richard’s Pipit 5, White’s Thrush 5 first-of-season, Rufous-tailed Robin 1 first-of-season. We introduced Benjamin to Reed Parrotbill calling unseen from the reeds below, we had a strong count of 16 Blue-and-white Flycatcher, and we noted two endangered species: Far Eastern Curlew and Yellow-breasted Bunting.

Day Lists
My first reference is IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 2 for Sat. 24 Sept. 2016 (10 species). Birds noted at sod farm south of Pudong International Airport (31.112586, 121.824742), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Sunny. Low 18° C, high 26° C. Humidity 71%. Visibility 10 km. Wind ESE 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 98 (moderate). Sunrise 05:44, sunset 17:46. SAT 24 SEP 2016 06:05-06:20. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Little Egret Egretta garzetta 2
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 3
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius 50
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 3
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola 1
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 2
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 2
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis tschutschensis ca. 50
White Wagtail M. alba leucopsis 6
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 4

List 2 of 2 for Sat. 24 Sept. 2016 (66 species)

Microforest 4
Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Saturday. This is the largest of the eight microforests at Nanhui and an astonishingly effective migrant trap. With woodland birds migrating through and trees all around, one almost begins to forget that this speck of woodland is just a stone’s throw from the mudflats and the East China Sea. German birder Kai Pflug recently carted out trash from the wood, enhancing its allure. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Includes birds found along coastal road between 31.000204, 121.938145 & 30.851114, 121.848527, in particular Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083). Sunny. Low 18° C, high 26° C. Humidity 71%. Visibility 10 km. Wind ESE 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 98 (moderate). Sunrise 05:44, sunset 17:46. SAT 24 SEP 2016 06:40-17:35. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope 5
Eurasian Teal A. crecca ca. 300
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 5
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 40
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 1
Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis 1
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 30
Great Egret A. alba 13
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 2
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 12
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 20
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 4
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 10
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 8
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 5
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 5
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 1
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 100
Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis 1
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa melanuroides 14
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis 20
Dunlin C. alpina 30
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus 4
Spotted Redshank T. erythropus 4
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 30
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 8
Common Redshank T. totanus 5
Ruff Philomachus pugnax 1
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus 10
Whiskered Tern C. hybrida 5
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 5
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 6
Cuculus sp. 4
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 2
Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo 1 juv.
Black-winged Cuckooshrike Coracina melaschistos 1
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus 3
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 28
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis 1
Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus 1
Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata 6
Amur Paradise Flycatcher T. incei 1
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula 3
Sand/Pale Martin Riparia riparia/diluta 1
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ca. 200
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 4
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 1
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes/borealoides 10
Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus 5
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 1
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 2
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 1
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 2
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 5
Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica 1
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. dauurica 8
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 16
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 1
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius philippensis 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 100
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 4
White Wagtail M. alba 4
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 1
Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola 1

WORKS CITED

(1) Alström, Per. Identification of Phylloscopus & Seicercus Warblers in China. Notes from presentation given to Beijing Birdwatching Society in November 2012. PDF downloadable here (13 MB). Click here for a 5 MB zip archive containing all 40 pages of the report in JPEG form. Those pages can be synced to your smartphone like photographs and consulted in the field.

(2) Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press, p. 358.

(3) del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 11, “Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers,” species accounts for Pale-legged Leaf Warbler (p. 663) and Sakhalin Leaf Warbler (p. 664) written by P. Clement.

Where the World’s Greatest Flyway Meets the World’s Greatest City

Finally, it is ready: Elaine’s and my report on the doings of this past spring in Shanghai. We’re calling it “Shanghai-area Springtime Birding, 2016.”

The report is the latest in a growing list of resources available on shanghaibirding.com. Everything we do here is geared toward showing you what birding is like at the point on the Earth where the world’s greatest migratory flyway meets the world’s greatest city.

The report covers 7 March to 24 May 2016. Elaine and I birded 38 of those 79 days and noted 240 species. We partnered with members of our network of subscribers and contributors to shanghaibirding.com. Special thanks to Michael Grunwell and Jan-Erik Nilsén as well as to Xueping Popp, Stephan Popp, Kai Pflug, and Ian Davies.

Why should you read “Shanghai-area Springtime Birding, 2016”? Read it to plan your own explorations and to get an idea of what birds you can expect to see in this city in March, April, and May. You’ll find no more complete a report on that subject, anywhere.

From the intro:

“We deepened our knowledge of the birds of the East Asian–Australasian Flyway and increased our understanding of the pressures these birds face in the Shanghai region. One of the most densely populated areas in the world and an economic dynamo, the Shanghai tri-province area encompasses Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, is the size of the U.S. state of Kansas, and has a population of 160 million–half that of the United States.”

From the highlights:

“ — We continued to monitor species under threat by the uncontrolled coastal development afflicting the region, among them the endangered Black-faced Spoonbill, Great Knot, and Yellow-breasted Bunting; near-threatened Eurasian Oystercatcher, Asian Dowitcher, Black-tailed Godwit, Bar-tailed Godwit, Eurasian Curlew, Grey-tailed Tattler, Red Knot, Curlew Sandpiper, Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, Marsh Grassbird, and Reed Parrotbill; and vulnerable Chinese Egret, Saunders’s Gull, and Yellow Bunting. We led a group one of whose members found the critically endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper.

“ — We recorded the first Blue Whistling Thrush in Shanghai since 1987. Other interesting finds were Horned Grebe on Chongming, Oriental Plover on Hengsha Island, Ruddy Kingfisher at Yangkou, Red-throated Thrush at Century Park, singing Sakhalin Leaf Warbler at Zhongshan Park, Grey-crowned Warbler, Two-barred Warbler, Pechora Pipit, and Citrine Wagtail at Nanhui, White-shouldered Starling on Lesser Yangshan, Rufous-faced Warbler at Nanhui and on Lesser Yangshan, and Bluethroat at Nanhui and on Chongming.”

Featured image: Screenshot of our newly published report, “Shanghai-area Springtime Birding, 2016,” now available in the Reports section of shanghaibirding.com.

Rainy, Quiet Nanhui

Elaine Du and I noted 86 species over the rainy weekend of 7-8 May 2016. We had White-shouldered Starling, Siberian Blue Robin, and Chestnut Bunting on Lesser Yangshan Island and Chinese Egret, Black-faced Spoonbill, and Curlew Sandpiper at Nanhui. I got my best view of Sakhalin Leaf Warbler at Nanhui, and on Yangshan our partner Michael Grunwell got his best view of Yellow-rumped Flycatcher. Other passage migrants were Brown Shrike, Eyebrowed Thrush, Siberian Rubythroat, and season’s first Dark-sided Flycatcher at Nanhui and Blue-and-white Flycatcher on Lesser Yangshan.

9 endangered Black-faced Spoonbill make use of a pond a stone's throw from the sea-wall road at Nanhui. The rainy day depressed the numbers of tourists and made Nanhui quieter, giving these sub-adults a much-needed opportunity to chill out.
9 endangered Black-faced Spoonbill make use of a pond a stone’s throw from the sea-wall road at Nanhui. The rainy day depressed the numbers of tourists and made Nanhui quieter, giving these sub-adults a much-needed opportunity to chill out.

The nearly constant rain made birding challenging but had its good points. While depressing our bird count, especially on Sunday (just 62 species), the rain also depressed the number of visitors, giving Nanhui its former wild feel. The lack of tourists and their vehicles on Sunday allowed 9 Black-faced Spoonbill to exploit a good pond just a stone’s throw from the usually busy sea-wall road. The spoonbills, all sub-adults in non-breeding plumage, noted our car and went back to feeding. On that same pond on Saturday, we captured in a single photograph 6 birds representing five species: 2 Black-faced Spoonbill plus Intermediate Egret, Little Egret, Great Egret, and Chinese Egret.

6 Birds, 5 Species, 1 Photo: Top: Black-faced Spoonbill. Bottom, L-R: Intermediate Egret, Little Egret, Great Egret, Chinese Egret.
6 Birds, 5 Species, 1 Photo: Top: Black-faced Spoonbill. Bottom, L-R: Intermediate Egret, Little Egret, Great Egret, Chinese Egret.

Though rainy, the weather Sunday was not windy; the lack of wind plus lack of cars made Nanhui quiet and good for sound-recording. I got a particularly good recording of Black-browed Reed Warbler and Oriental Reed Warbler. Note the more slowly delivered, more powerful song of the much larger Oriental Reed Warbler.

Black-browed Reed Warbler, Song (01:19; 3.9 MB)

Oriental Reed Warbler, Song (01:00; 3.2 MB)

I also made a recording of a bird that may be Sakhalin Leaf Warbler (00:15; 1.4 MB):

Phylloscopus borealoides was one of my hot topics over the weekend, after the excitement caused by my encounter on 5 May with a Sakhalin Leaf Warbler at Shanghai’s Zhongshan Park. The tink sound I recorded on Saturday at Nanhui was delivered faster than and at a slightly different pitch from the majority of tink calls assigned to Pale-legged Leaf Warbler and currently available on xeno-canto.org. The call more closely matches the quickly delivered, higher-pitched tink calls assigned to Sakhalin Leaf Warbler.

I got a good look at the leaf warbler I recorded. It was obviously a Pale-legged or Sakhalin, but the crown was greyer than in a normal Pale/Sak and it contrasted more with the olive-brown mantle. Mark Brazil in Birds of East Asia notes the “strong contrast between greyish-toned crown/nape, and greenish (or brownish) mantle” of Sak. However, these characters are only more likely to be found in Sak; they may also be found in Pale. Because the features of the two species overlap, only song or a DNA test is diagnostic.

Pale/Sand Martin Riparia diluta/riparia, Nanhui, 7 May 2016. Both species are possible in Shanghai this time of year. Of the two species, Brazil says, "[F]ield identification criteria remain uncertain."
Pale/Sand Martin Riparia diluta/riparia, Nanhui, 7 May 2016. Both species are possible in Shanghai this time of year. Of the two species, Brazil says, “[F]ield identification criteria remain uncertain.”
Elaine and I came upon three other birds that are hard to ID to species level. The question of Pale or Sand Martin is nettlesome, as is separating Japanese Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians from Manchurian Bush Warbler H. borealis borealis. I know that the Shanghai region falls within the breeding range of canturians, but borealis very likely passes through this region, and Kennerley and Pearson suggest that migrating borealis may sing. Certainly some of the canturians/borealis that we see here are breeding canturians; the problem is singling one out with any certainty.

Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians/H. borealis borealis, Nanhui, 8 May. This bird was singing and is presumably a canturians.
Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians/H. borealis borealis, Nanhui, 8 May. This bird was singing and is presumably a canturians.

Another problem is the non-calling Cuculus cuckoos one encounters in Shanghai. On size one can often distinguish a well-viewed Lesser Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus, and if the eye is seen well one can distinguish the dark iris of Indian Cuckoo C. micropterus. Common Cuckoo C. canorus, Oriental Cuckoo C. optatus, and Himalayan Cuckoo C. saturatus are larger than C. poliocephalus, and unlike C. micropterus have yellow irides. C. optatus and C. saturatus are virtually indistinguishable, but this pair and C. canorus have some differences, among them the often unbarred yellow undertail coverts of C. optatus/saturatus and the thicker barring of those species on the breast and belly.

Common Cuckoo almost certainly breeds in Nanhui, and very soon we should be hearing its famous call. I have recorded neither C. optatus nor C. saturatus in the Shanghai region, I have witnessed C. micropterus in Shanghai, in the Tianmu Mountains, and at Dongtai in Jiangsu, and I have found C. poliocephalus at Dongtai.

Cuculus cuckoo, Nanhui, 8 May 2016. By size we know it's not Lesser Cuckoo, by iris color we know it's not Indian Cuckoo, and we can guess that it's probably Common Cuckoo. But Himalyan and Oriental can't be ruled out.
Cuculus cuckoo, Nanhui, 8 May 2016. By size we know it’s not Lesser Cuckoo, by iris color we know it’s not Indian Cuckoo, and we can guess that it’s probably Common Cuckoo. But Himalyan and Oriental can’t be ruled out.

In springtime, one encounters Cuculus adults, which if not calling are hard enough to ID; but just wait, come autumn we will be seeing the juveniles coming through. Juveniles never call, and the various Cuculus species in juvenile form resemble each other even more than Cuculus adults.

On Saturday, Elaine and I birded once again with Shanghai-based English birder Michael Grunwell. On Sunday, we birded briefly with Stephan Popp and Xueping Popp, and later Kai Pflug and his wife Jing dropped by.

List 1 of 2 for Sat. 7 May 2016 (38 species)

Yellow-rumped Flycatcher, Lesser Yangshan Island, 7 May 2016.
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher, Lesser Yangshan Island, 7 May 2016.

Birds noted on Lesser Yangshan Island (Xiǎo Yángshān [小洋山]), island in Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang, China. List includes birds noted at Garbage Dump Gully (30.641565, 122.062836), Temple Mount (30.639866, 122.048327), & Accidental Marsh (30.611902, 122.114873), an area on reclaimed land between Lesser Yangshan & Dazhitou Island (Dà Zhǐtou Dǎo [大指头岛]). Mostly cloudy and rainy. Low 15° C, high 17° C. Wind ENE 29 km/h. Visibility 10 km. PM2.5 AQI: 134 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:03, sunset 18:39. SAT 07 MAY 2016 05:20-08:35. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 5
Phalacrocorax sp. 1
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 2
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 3
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia 1
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 2
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus 3
Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus 1
Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos 3
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 10
Pale/Sand Martin Riparia diluta/riparia 3
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 50
Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica 3
Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians/H. borealis borealis 7 singing
Brown-flanked Bush Warbler H. fortipes 1
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 1
Eastern Crowned Warbler P. coronatus 1
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 1
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 2
Zosterops sp. 20
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 2
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 5
White-shouldered Starling Sturnia sinensis 1
Grey-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta 4
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. latirostris 6
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 1
Siberian Blue Robin Larvivora cyane 2
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia 1
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius philippensis 3
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 10
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 1 leucopsis
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 1
Olive-backed Pipit A. hodgsoni 3
Chinese Grosbeak Eophona migratoria 1
Meadow Bunting Emberiza cioides 1
Little Bunting E. pusilla 1
Chestnut Bunting E. rutila 2

List 2 of 2 for Sat. 7 May 2016 (71 species)

Tristram's Bunting, Nanhui, 7 May 2016. A passage migrant in Shanghai, Emberiza tristrami is a woodland bunting and is often found in the microforests at Nanhui. This is a female.
Tristram’s Bunting, Nanhui, 7 May 2016. A passage migrant in Shanghai, Emberiza tristrami is a woodland bunting and is often found in the microforests at Nanhui. This is a female.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]), Shanghai, China (30.920507, 121.973159). List includes birds found along Shijitang Road between 31.000204, 121.938145 & 30.851114, 121.848527, in particular South Lock (30.857798, 121.914106) & South Lawn (midpoint of grassy area at 30.849840, 121.897953). Mostly cloudy and rainy. Low 15° C, high 17° C. Wind ENE 29 km/h. Visibility 10 km. PM2.5 AQI: 134 (unhealthful). Sunrise 05:03, sunset 18:39. SAT 07 MAY 2016 09:30-17:30. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 3
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 3
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 11
Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor 4
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 1
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 2
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 11
Great Egret A. alba 2
Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia 8
Little Egret E. garzetta 38
Chinese Egret E. eulophotes 3
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 6
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 6
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 1
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius 6
Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus 3
Lesser Sand Plover C. mongolus 2
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 7
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 8
Common Redshank T. totanus 5
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 30
Common Greenshank T. ochropus 5
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 15
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus 21
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 20
Sanderling Calidris alba 2
Red-necked Stint C. ruficollis ca. 200
Long-toed Stint C. subminuta 15
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper C. acuminata 40
Curlew Sandpiper C. ferruginea 6
Dunlin C. alpina 1
Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus 5
Vega Gull Larus vegae vegae/mongolicus 2
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus 2
Spotted Dove Spilopelia chinensis 2
Cuculus sp. 1
Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata 2
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus 8
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 1
Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus 2
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula 7 singing
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 16
Pale/Sand Martin Riparia diluta/riparia ca. 500
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ca. 100
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 4
Two-barred Warbler P. plumbeitarsus 1
Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. borealoides 1 making tink call
Oriental Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orientalis 30
Marsh Grassbird Locustella pryeri 2
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 2
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 1
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 20
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 8
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 8
Red-billed Starling Spodiopsar sericeus 3
White-cheeked Starling S. cineraceus 3
Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus obscurus 10
Grey-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta 3
Dark-sided Flycatcher M. sibirica 1
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. latirostris 8
Rufous-tailed Robin Larvivora sibilans 1
Siberian Rubythroat Calliope calliope 2
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki 2
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius philippensis 2
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 20
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 15 (12 tschutschensis, 3 taivana)
Grey Wagtail M. cinerea 6
White Wagtail M. alba 4 leucopsis
Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami 2
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 3

List 1 of 1 for Sun. 8 May 2016 (62 species)

Eyebrowed Thrush, Nanhui, 8 May 2016.
Eyebrowed Thrush, Nanhui, 8 May 2016.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]), Shanghai, China (30.920507, 121.973159). List includes birds found along Shijitang Road between 31.000204, 121.938145 & 30.851114, 121.848527, in particular South Lock (30.857798, 121.914106) & South Lawn (midpoint of grassy area at 30.849840, 121.897953). Showers & drizzle with brief periods of no precipitation. Low 14° C, high 17° C. Wind E 18 km/h. Visibility 10 km. PM2.5 AQI: 70 (moderate). Sunrise 05:02, sunset 18:39. SUN 08 MAY 2016 06:30-17:25. Craig Brelsford & Elaine Du.

Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas zonorhyncha 2
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 4
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 7
Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor 9
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 4
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 3
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 3
Great Egret A. alba 7
Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia 10
Little Egret E. garzetta 45
Chinese Egret E. eulophotes 2
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 2
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 17
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 13
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius 2
Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus 4
Lesser Sand Plover C. mongolus 2
Common Redshank Tringa totanus 2
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 16
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 15
Wood Sandpiper T. glareola 13
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus 1
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 19
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis 55
Long-toed Stint C. subminuta 9
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper C. acuminata 16
Curlew Sandpiper C. ferruginea 1
Dunlin C. alpina 3
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus 3
Spotted Dove Spilopelia chinensis 3
Cuculus sp. 1 (not C. micropterus, not C. poliocephalus)
Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus 30
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 2
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula 15
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 7
Pale/Sand Martin Riparia diluta/riparia ca. 300
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ca. 200
Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians/H. borealis borealis 10 singing
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 5
Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler P. borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas 1
Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler P. tenellipes/borealoides 2
Oriental Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orientalis ca. 80
Black-browed Reed Warbler A. bistrigiceps 2
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 1
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 4
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 25
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 8
Zosterops sp. 3
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 9
Red-billed Starling Spodiopsar sericeus 3
White-cheeked Starling S. cineraceus 1
Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus obscurus 19
Grey-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta 2
Asian Brown Flycatcher M. latirostris 7
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 30
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 11
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 1 leucopsis
Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni 2
Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami 2
Little Bunting E. pusilla 1
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 8

Grey-streaked Flycatcher in the rain, Nanhui, 7 May 2016.
Grey-streaked Flycatcher in the rain, Nanhui, 7 May 2016.

Featured image: Black-faced Spoonbill in sub-adult plumage, Nanhui, Shanghai, China, 7 May 2016. The spoonbills were taking advantage of the rainy weather, using pools just below the sea wall road. The road is busy when the weather is good but on rainy days is quiet.