Crested Goshawk has sunk its talons into Shanghai. In the past year, records of the species have come from various locations throughout the city, in all four seasons. This past spring, a pair may have bred at Gongqing Forest Park.
It is remarkable that Crested Goshawk, a species of tropical and subtropical Asia, is even as far north as the Yangtze River. Most field guides show Accipiter trivirgatus indicus, the mainland form, occurring no farther north than Hangzhou. However, members of Shanghai Birding, the WeChat companion to this Web site, have reported Crested Goshawk in Nanjing and Nantong (Jiangsu). Other authorities record Crested Goshawk in Anhui, Henan, and even Beijing.
If the forest-loving goshawk has invaded the coastal, little-wooded, highly urbanized world of Shanghai, then it is not surprising that it would be using urban parks. Some of the parks of Shanghai, such as 102-year-old Zhongshan Park, where I found a pair of Crested Goshawk on 8 Sept., have massive trees and resemble old-growth forests.
Like the avifauna of islands, the birds of urban Shanghai’s green islands live in isolation. Except for stray cats and an occasional Siberian Weasel, urban residents Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Light-vented Bulbul, and Chinese Blackbird have few predators and are abundant.
With the imbalance comes an opportunity for raptors that can tolerate the noise and bustle of Earth’s Largest City. For Crested Goshawk, the pluses of urban living are apparently outweighing the minuses. It has come to feed on the rich store of passerines as well as mammals such as Pallas’s Squirrel.
On 16 May 2017 at Pudong’s Century Park, Shanghai Birding member Xueping Popp captured a Crested Goshawk exploiting the imbalance.
Shanghai Birding member Wāng Jìn Róng (汪进荣) was one of the first birders to record Crested Goshawk in Shanghai. Jìn Róng has seen the species at Zhongshan Park and Gongqing Forest Park as well as on the grounds of the Shanghai Zoo. Jìn Róng took the photo at the top of this post as well as the photos immediately below. All were taken at Zhongshan Park–the photo above this past May, the photos below last December.
The Crested Goshawk below, photographed by Shanghai Birding member Kai Pflug at Cape Nanhui, may have been in transit. Cape Nanhui has little tree cover beyond its famous microforests (where Kai got this photo), and Crested Goshawk is rarely recorded there.
Have you seen Crested Goshawk or other raptors in your city? Tell us your story in the comments below.
The media below offer a clearer picture of the current status in China of Crested Goshawk.
Brelsford, Craig, moderator. Shanghai Birding, a WeChat group. The subject of Crested Goshawk generated discussions with various birders, among them Jiangsu birders Scoter and maidong, who had information about Crested Goshawk in Nanjing and Nantong. Hangzhou birder Cheng Qian reported on the distribution of Crested Goshawk in Zhejiang. Beijing-based member Paul Holt alerted us to scholarship on the changing distribution of Crested Goshawk and shared records of the species from Anhui and Beijing. Guangdong-based member Jonathan Martinez wrote about breeding Crested Goshawk in Hunan.
There are two ways to join Shanghai Birding. First, you need WeChat, the platform on which Shanghai Birding runs. Once you have installed WeChat, (1) fill out the form on our Sightings page or (2) friend Craig Brelsford on WeChat (ID: craigbrelsford). State that you wish to join the group.
eBird. 2017. eBird Range Map–Crested Goshawk. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [Web application]. eBird, Ithaca, New York. (Accessed: Sept. 14, 2017).
The eBird Range Map shows points on the Earth where checklists with Crested Goshawk have been submitted. The map shows Crested Goshawk in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, and Henan as well as Shanghai.
Fei, Y.-L., Lei, M., Zhang, Y. and Lu, C.-H. Geographic Distribution Change of Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus). Chinese Journal of Zoology 45 (2010): 174–175. Available here. (Accessed: Sept. 14, 2017).
Editor’s note: Daniel Bengtsson (the tall guy next to me) is a former Shanghai resident, a frequent visitor to Earth’s Greatest City, and an avid birder. Daniel left his mark on Shanghai birding with his Century Park All-time Bird List, which he began compiling in 2008. The list stands at 135 species, almost all of them recorded first by Daniel, and is the best record ever made of the birds of a major Shanghai park.
In this guest post, Daniel’s first for shanghaibirding.com, Daniel discusses the birding side of his latest trip to China. He introduces us to two important locations in Fujian: Ziyun Cun, a forest site good for Cabot’s Tragopan, and the Minjiang estuary, breeding area of the critically endangered Chinese Crested Tern. With Daniel’s piece, plus my work on Emeifeng, Shanghai birders have a growing list of resources with which to plan their own Fujian trip. — Craig Brelsford
As I spent more than two years in Shanghai over a five-year period (2006-2010), and since Shanghai is the birthplace of my wife and daughter, this huge city will always be my second home–a bit unlikely, perhaps, considering I was raised in the Swedish countryside.
My daughter is now 8, which means that we are limited to Christmas and summer breaks to visit the Shanghainese side of our family. We did our latest summer trip this past June and July.
Any time I’m in Shanghai, I visit Century Park, my “home spot” which I birded more than 50 times back in 2008. This past summer, I birded the park twice, on 23 and 29 June.
In contrast to other parts of Shanghai, Century Park has undergone little change over the years. This time, however, I noticed that Oriental Magpie-Robin had moved in. Other records of interest were singing Indian Cuckoo (2 birds seen), Eurasian Hoopoe with 2 fledged chicks, and Asian Brown Flycatcher (difficult to know whether it had already been to the breeding grounds and returned south or whether it had been delayed and was on its way north).
To add more birding flavor to the visit, I asked my wife and daughter to do a family-plus-birding trip with me to Fujian. On 5 July we flew from Pudong Airport to Sanming in western Fujian. We were picked up and driven to Ziyun Cun (紫云村, 26.359541, 117.492287). Like Emeifeng 80 km to the west, Ziyun Cun, elev. 800 m, lies in hilly, thickly forested, sparsely populated country. The peaceful village of 1,000 inhabitants was a welcome contrast to hot and humid Shanghai.
We stayed in a small family hotel which offered nice rooms and fresh, self-produced food at a very reasonable price. Both driver and hotel were arranged by birder Xiao Yang (小杨, +86 158-5982-8858). His parents run the hotel.
Among birders and photographers, Ziyun Cun is well-known for the temple on one of the nearby hilltops, often providing both Cabot’s Tragopan and Elliot’s Pheasant. Although Elliot’s Pheasant did not show during the two days I spent in the area, I got fine views of the tragopan as well as of Silver Pheasant and Chinese Bamboo Partridge.
Bird activity was low, and it was obvious that it was long gone into the breeding season. Though birds were calling little, I did manage to hear White-necklaced Partridge, Chinese Barbet, and Grey-sided Scimitar Babbler. Bay Woodpecker and Rufous Woodpecker showed nicely.
Night birds were more active. By walking from the village to the temple (1.5 km) before dawn, I heard Collared Scops Owl, Oriental Scops Owl, Collared Owlet, Asian Barred Owlet, and Grey Nightjar.
For 50 RMB another driver took us to the temple by car. This was a good deal when bringing my wife and daughter, since they would not have been too happy walking the steep track from the paved road up to the temple. Alongside the temple track, a stairway leads down to a different side of the hill. This side has better forest, and most of the birds were here.
On the last morning, Xiao Yang’s father took me to a private hide at the base of the hill, where the better forest begins. Apparently this is too low for Elliot’s Pheasant, but it is reliable for Silver Pheasant (and sometimes Cabot’s Tragopan). The deal was that I would pay 100 RMB if I got to photograph either the pheasant or tragopan. (I recommend paying anyway, since this is a good way of supporting ecotourism!) The same deal goes for the hide at the temple.
After two nights in Ziyun Cun, we were driven back to Sanming. We were dropped off at the train station and took the high-speed train to Fuzhou.
Two mornings later, on 9 July, through the kind arrangements of the Fujian Bird Watching Society, I was picked up for a two-hour drive to the Minjiang estuary (26.023600, 119.653200). The Minjiang estuary is the only reliable site in mainland China for the critically endangeredChinese Crested Tern, a species whose total world population probably does not exceed 50. The mudflats are also important as a stopover site for many waders, among them the critically endangeredSpoon-billed Sandpiper. Another bird of interest to Shanghai-based birders is White-faced Plover Charadrius (alexandrinus) dealbatus, a member of the Kentish Plover clade. At Fuzhou it is probably close to the northern border of its breeding range.
Foreign visitors need a permit to enter the protected area. The fee of 1,000 RMB may seem high, but if it can help protect the mudflats and the birds relying on them for survival, then it is money well-spent.
Chinese Crested Tern breeds on islets in the Taiwan Strait. For bathing and drinking, the terns use the brackish water close to the mouth of the Minjiang River. They don’t come every day, though, and not outside the breeding season, which lasts from April to September. In fact, the rest of our party had tried the previous day without success. On this day, we were lucky to have 1 adult Chinese Crested Tern join the rest of the roosting terns. It stayed for less than an hour before taking off again, swooping down to drink a couple of times then heading for the strait.
Other terns of interest were a couple of briefly visiting Bridled Tern as well as a few Roseate Tern (in both breeding and non-breeding plumages). Along with Common Tern, Little Tern, Greater Crested Tern, Whiskered Tern, and White-winged Tern, it all added up to eight species of terns in one day–a record for me.
The shoreline also provided 9 Black-faced Spoonbill and various species of wader, among them Grey-tailed Tattler, Terek Sandpiper, Great Knot, Red-necked Stint, Sanderling, Ruddy Turnstone, Pacific Golden Plover, and Greater Sand Plover. Some Sanderling and Red-necked Stint were in full breeding plumage, so I guess they had already made it up to the Arctic tundra and back.
Thinking of the amazing journeys these small creatures perform twice a year, and with the rarest of all species of tern in the bag, I strolled pleasantly through the muddy channels (helped by my waterproof sandals and zip-off trousers). The next morning we got on the high-speed train, and four and a half hours later we were back in Shanghai.
Featured image: Daniel Bengtsson and Craig Brelsford pose with their families. L-R: Daniel’s wife, Zhao Qing (赵清); Daniel Bengtsson; Daniel and Qing’s daughter, Linnea; Craig Brelsford; and Craig’s wife, Elaine Du. Shanghai, 2 July 2017.
I made a mistake the other day. On the Shanghai Birding WeChat group, 153 members strong, I shared the location of a pair of breeding birds. I’m talking about the Greater Painted-snipe at Cape Nanhui in Pudong.
At first, I thought the painted-snipes were vagrants, perhaps on a post-breeding dispersal. Then I noticed that one of the painted-snipes was male, the other female.
I didn’t see fledglings or a nest. Even so, I should have known that I was viewing a pair that was probably breeding.
In the spirit of Cooperative Birding that is the core of shanghaibirding.com, I shared the location on the WeChat group, still thinking incorrectly that the painted-snipes were vagrants and not breeders.
Within seconds, the location was known to anyone using the Shanghai Birding WeChat group.
Then other Shanghai Birding members offered very persuasive evidence that the painted-snipes at Nanhui are indeed breeding.
And now, more and more onlookers apparently are converging on the nest site.
A few people getting a quick look are one thing. Many people lingering for a long time are another thing.
I fear a result such as occurred this past spring with the breeding Reed Parrotbill at Nanhui. Then, pressure from photographers likely led to the failure of a nest.
We Shanghai birders must work to prevent this!
The Nanhui painted-snipes are breeding in a trash-strewn canal–very sub-optimal.
In addition, they may be dealing with big, scary creatures (us) staring at them for hours at a time.
That’s extremely sub-optimal.
When I viewed the painted-snipes, I saw that they were acutely aware of my presence and were almost certainly modifying their behavior as a result of my presence.
That’s why my friends and I got out of there quick.
I like taking photos, but I contented myself with some record shots and got out of there.
I suggest others do the same. Let’s be conservationists first and artists second.
And by all means, let us keep revealing the locations of interesting birds.
But remember, it is one thing to reveal the location of a migrating bird that likely will be gone in a few minutes or hours. In the spirit of Cooperative Birding, we owe it to our fellow birders to reveal those locations so that they too can enjoy the rare passage migrant.
It’s quite another thing to reveal the location of the nest of a rare bird.
A nesting bird is a sitting duck (in some cases literally). A nesting bird can hardly be more vulnerable.
So I’m sorry I revealed the nest site of the painted-snipes.
But that’s water under the bridge. The key now is to control the situation at the nest site.
Please, police yourself first. Don’t linger too long. Be a conservationist.
If you see anyone getting out of hand, then please speak up. Again, be a conservationist.
Let’s love the Nanhui painted-snipes from a distance and help them successfully raise their baby.
Dongling is only 185 km north of People’s Square in Shanghai, closer than the declining old hot spot of Yangkou (“Rudong”) and the Dongtai coastal areas. Through a steady rain 12 Aug., Bob and I found high-tide roosts containing seas of Great Knot plus a single lonely Spoon-billed Sandpiper in complete winter plumage.
Seeing so many Great Knot was extremely heartening. In stark contrast, however, was endangeredFar Eastern Curlew, of which only 5 were noted. Unlike near-threatenedEurasian Curlew (130), which though not abundant at Dongling numbered in the thousands at coastal Dongtai, Far Eastern Curlew were abundant nowhere.
On 11 Aug. Bob and I birded the reclaimed area of eastern Hengsha Island. The place was a bustle of activity, even at 5:15 in the morning, with 18-wheelers and dump trucks rumbling by. Security was tight. Guards were stationed at every intersection and in roving vans, one of which stopped us. We told them our purpose was birding; they told us to leave.
Before getting kicked out, Bob and I enjoyed one of my best moments ever with near-threatenedReed Parrotbill. A mega-flock of about 50 birds, much larger than the flocks one sees in the smaller, and ever-shrinking, reedy areas at Cape Nanhui, was making a loud noise during a morning feed. The flock contained juveniles and adults and proved that, provided it has habitat in which to flourish, Reed Parrotbill is a common, even dominant, reed-bed specialist.
With the help of local Chinese birders, Bob and I found a pair of Greater Painted-snipe in a thickly vegetated, trash-strewn canal. The shy birds were aware of our presence and nervous, but they held their ground. That behavior, in combination with a photo another Chinese birder took suggesting that the male is brooding, persuaded us that the pair has a nest. We moved quickly away and did not return.
Nordmann’s GreenshankTringa guttifer
Footage I got 11 Aug. at Dongtai figures prominently in this video I made comparing Nordmann’s Greenshank to Common Greenshank.
The video below records one of my closest encounters ever with “Swintail” Snipe. I found this individual 14 Aug. at the sod farm (31.103100, 121.829300) south of Pudong International Airport.
The video shows some of the characters distinguishing this species pair from Common Snipe. (The two species themselves are, except in extraordinary circumstances, indistinguishable from one another.)
As the autumn migration season progresses, the sod farm bears checking; on 3 Sept. 2016 at the farm, my partners and I had a rare Shanghai record of Common Ringed Plover.
The video of the snipe as well as the other two videos embedded into this post were made with my combination of iPhone 6 plus PhoneSkope adapter plus Swarovski ATX-95. This powerful combination allows the videographer to shoot usable video from a great distance, allowing even a shy snipe to act naturally. (I never got closer than 40 m to the snipe.)
Amur Paradise FlycatcherTerpsiphone incei
It was an exciting moment 10 Aug. when Amur Paradise Flycatcher appeared in Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635). In the photo above, note the indistinct border between the bluish hood and white belly and the two-tone coloration of the hood–darker blue head, lighter blue breast. In Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, the hood tends to be uniformly colored and the border between the hood and white breast more distinct.
With this year’s fall migration season getting into full swing, paradise flycatchers are going to be moving through Shanghai, and you may wish to improve your skills. For more on separating Amur Paradise Flycatcher from Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, see my post from 2016, “ID Workshop: Paradise Flycatchers.”
Adults and some juveniles are now moving through Shanghai. In a few weeks, nearly all adult Cuculus cuckoos will be gone, and we will be left with the juveniles. Cuckoos do not sing in autumn, and song of course is by far the best way of distinguishing among the Cuculus cuckoos of our region. I therefore almost invariably mark these silent birds “Cuculus sp.”
Let us say I assigned these silent cuckoos to Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Perhaps they were the size of a sparrowhawk (ruling out thrush-sized Lesser Cuckoo C. poliocephalus), and perhaps they even had yellow irides (ruling out dark-eyed Indian Cuckoo C. micropterus and providing yet more evidence against dark-eyed Lesser Cuckoo).
Even if my cuckoos passed these tests, unless they were singing the classic song (virtually unheard this time of year), how could I justify ID-ing them as Common? It is, of course, likely that some of them are Common, but how can one be sure that any given silent Cuculus cuckoo one is seeing is Common?
I refrain from making speculative species assignments. I refrain because we still do not know enough about the migration patterns in Shanghai of Oriental Cuckoo C. optatus and Himalayan Cuckoo C. saturatus.
Like so many of the woodland passerines that pass through Shanghai on migration, Oriental Cuckoo breeds in northeastern China. Like those woodland passerines, Oriental Cuckoo also may pass through Shanghai on migration. Oriental, of course, is very similar to Common, the two species having so many overlapping characters that a firm ID of non-photographed, non-singing birds is all but impossible; and Himalayan, which theoretically may be present in or near our region, is even more similar to Oriental (“virtually identical”–Mark Brazil, Birds of East Asia, p. 256).
In Shanghai it may be tempting to assign silent Cuculus cuckoos, particularly yellow-eyed adults, to Common Cuckoo. Before I ever started doing that, though, I would want to know more about Oriental Cuckoo and Himalayan Cuckoo in the Shanghai region. Maybe future studies, using captured cuckoos whose DNA has been analyzed, will reveal a surprising pattern of Cuculus migration in Shanghai. Maybe those studies will show that considerable numbers of Cuculus passage migrants are Oriental Cuckoo.
Until that day comes, I usually hold back from ID-ing non-singing Cuculus cuckoos.
After being nearly unheard of in Shanghai as recently as a few years ago, Himalayan Swiftlet is now more and more regularly recorded in Shanghai in both spring and autumn.
The question arises of whether Himalayan Swiftlet has always been a scarce passage migrant and overlooked or whether its numbers are increasing in our area. It is of course also possible that both its numbers are increasing in our area and local birders’ skills and communication methods are improving.
That communication methods are improving is indisputable. One of the main causes of the improved communication is the WeChat group I founded, Shanghai Birding. The members of that group, who range from the newest of newbies to some of the most expert birders in China, regularly exchange sightings in real-time.
To join Shanghai Birding, friend me on WeChat (WeChat ID: craigbrelsford). Tell me that you wish to join Shanghai Birding. I’ll add you.
Here is the complete list of the birds noted by Bob Orenstein and me 10-14 Aug. 2017:
Ruddy ShelduckTadorna ferruginea Mandarin DuckAix galericulata Eastern Spot-billed DuckAnas zonorhyncha Common PheasantPhasianus colchicus Little GrebeTachybaptus ruficollis Great Crested GrebePodiceps cristatus Great CormorantPhalacrocorax carbo Yellow BitternIxobrychus sinensis Cinnamon BitternI. cinnamomeus Grey HeronArdea cinerea Purple HeronA. purpurea Great EgretA. alba Intermediate EgretA. intermedia Little EgretEgretta garzetta Eastern Cattle EgretBubulcus coromandus Chinese Pond HeronArdeola bacchus Striated HeronButorides striata Black-crowned Night HeronNycticorax nycticorax Eastern Marsh HarrierCircus spilonotus White-breasted WaterhenAmaurornis phoenicurus Common MoorhenGallinula chloropus Eurasian CootFulica atra Black-winged StiltHimantopus himantopus Eurasian OystercatcherHaematopus ostralegus Grey PloverPluvialis squatarola Pacific Golden PloverP. fulva Grey-headed LapwingVanellus cinereus Lesser Sand PloverCharadrius mongolus Greater Sand PloverC. leschenaultii Kentish PloverC. alexandrinus Little Ringed PloverC. dubius Greater Painted-snipeRostratula benghalensis WhimbrelNumenius phaeopus Far Eastern CurlewN. madagascariensis Eurasian CurlewN. arquata Bar-tailed GodwitLimosa lapponica Black-tailed GodwitL. limosa Ruddy TurnstoneArenaria interpres Great KnotCalidris tenuirostris Red KnotC. canutus Broad-billed SandpiperC. falcinellus Sharp-tailed SandpiperC. acuminata Long-toed StintC. subminuta Spoon-billed SandpiperC. pygmea Red-necked StintC. ruficollis SanderlingC. alba DunlinC. alpina Pin-tailed/Swinhoe’s SnipeGallinago stenura/megala Terek SandpiperXenus cinereus Red-necked PhalaropePhalaropus lobatus Common SandpiperActitis hypoleucos Grey-tailed TattlerTringa brevipes Spotted RedshankT. erythropus Common GreenshankT. nebularia Nordmann’s GreenshankT. guttifer Marsh SandpiperT. stagnatilis Wood SandpiperT. glareola Common RedshankT. totanus Saunders’s GullChroicocephalus saundersi Black-headed GullC. ridibundus Black-tailed GullLarus crassirostris Little TernSternula albifrons Gull-billed TernGelochelidon nilotica Caspian TernHydroprogne caspia White-winged TernChlidonias leucopterus Whiskered TernC. hybrida Common TernSterna hirundo Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia Red Turtle DoveStreptopelia tranquebarica Spotted DoveS. chinensis Lesser CoucalCentropus bengalensis Cuculus sp. Himalayan SwiftletAerodramus brevirostris Eurasian HoopoeUpupa epops Common KingfisherAlcedo atthis Common KestrelFalco tinnunculus Peregrine FalconF. peregrinus Brown ShrikeLanius cristatus Long-tailed ShrikeL. schach Amur Paradise FlycatcherTerpsiphone incei Eurasian MagpiePica pica Oriental SkylarkAlauda gulgula Pale MartinRiparia diluta Barn SwallowHirundo rustica Red-rumped SwallowCecropis daurica Asian House MartinDelichon dasypus Japanese TitParus minor Light-vented BulbulPycnonotus sinensis Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf WarblerPhylloscopus borealis/examinandus Eastern Crowned WarblerP. coronatus Oriental Reed WarblerAcrocephalus orientalis Zitting CisticolaCisticola juncidis Plain PriniaPrinia inornata Reed ParrotbillParadoxornis heudei Vinous-throated ParrotbillSinosuthora webbiana Red-billed StarlingSpodiopsar sericeus White-cheeked StarlingS. cineraceus Crested MynaAcridotheres cristatellus Chinese BlackbirdTurdus mandarinus Asian Brown FlycatcherMuscicapa dauurica Oriental Magpie-RobinCopsychus saularis Yellow-rumped FlycatcherFicedula zanthopygia Blue Rock ThrushMonticola solitarius Eurasian Tree SparrowPasser montanus Scaly-breasted MuniaLonchura punctulata White WagtailMotacilla alba Chinese GrosbeakEophona migratoria