Kamchatka Leaf Warbler in Shanghai

Seen at Pudong’s Cape Nanhui on Sun. 4 June 2017: Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus. Veteran British birder Michael Grunwell and I found our 4 Kamchatkas in Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), the largest of the tree plantations on the landward side of the sea wall. The species is an all-time first for the Shanghai eBird list.

Just after sunrise, Michael and I, as is our wont, were doing “drive-by birding”–creeping along the edge of the road, listening out for birds. Suddenly, I heard an unfamiliar sound.

My gut said, “Hard, loud–Taiga Flycatcher?”

Taiga was not even close, of course. Note, however, what my gut was not saying: “Arctic Warbler,” a bird whose call I know well. This call was decidedly not an Arctic’s, though it soon dawned on us that we were hearing some type of leaf warbler.

To see why my gut did not say Arctic, compare my recordings of the tight “tzit” call of Arctic Warbler with the looser call of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler:

Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis, Yangkou-Rudong, Jiangsu (32.560095, 121.041956), 16 May 2015 (00:09; 1.9 MB)

Kamchatka Leaf Warbler P. examinandus, Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), Cape Nanhui, 4 June 2017 (00:25; 4.9 MB)

Michael and I skidded to a stop and poked our heads into the green tangle of locust trees. The call was being followed by a song. Only upon hearing the song did I think of Arctic Warbler. But here too, the song, though similar, was distinctive–wavier than the straight trill of Arctic. Look at the spectrograms below.

Spectrogram of Craig Brelsford's recording of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus.

The spectrogram above is of my recording 4 June 2017 of Kamchatka Leaf Warbler. Note the pattern: downward sweeps followed by an upward sweep. No one would liken that song to an insect’s. Below, the spectrogram of my 2015 recording of the song of Arctic Warbler. Note the straight, cricket-like trill.

Spectrogram of Craig Brelsford's recording of Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis.

Here are the recordings whose spectrograms are shown above:

Arctic Warbler, Yikesama National Forest, Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia (52.150833, 121.465639), 16 July 2015 (01:00; 3.2 MB)

Kamchatka Leaf Warbler, Microforest 4, 4 June 2017 (00:48; 9.3 MB)

After hearing several song-call cycles, Michael, my more experienced partner and the man who has taught me more than anyone about birding, first said the words “Kamchatka Leaf Warbler.”

Michael has birded the Indonesian islands of Flores and Komodo, where Kamchatka Leaf Warbler winters. Michael said that, last winter, walking through the forests there, he heard dozens of times the call of P. examinandus.

“I know that call,” Michael said.

I whipped out my Olympus DM-650 voice recorder and recorded the calling and singing warbler. Meanwhile, we caught our first glimpse of the individual. It was clearly an “Arctic-type” leaf warbler.

What is an “Arctic-type” leaf warbler? An Arctic-type leaf warbler is a member of one of four closely related taxa divided among three species: Japanese Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus xanthodryas, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler P. examinandus, and Arctic Warbler P. borealis borealis and P. b. kennicotti.

Per's map of Arctic-type warblers.
Leaf-warbler expert and Shanghai Birding member Per Alström is the person most responsible for our current understanding of Arctic-type leaf warblers. Alström’s PDF, from which this page is taken, is a handy introduction to leaf warblers in China and is downloadable through shanghaibirding.com.

Arctic Warbler is by far the most widespread breeder in the complex. P. b. borealis breeds across northern Eurasia, from Scandinavia to northeast China and the Russian Far East. P. b. kennicotti breeds in western Alaska.

As their names suggest, Japanese Leaf Warbler breeds mainly in Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), Kamchatka Leaf Warbler mainly in the southern Kamchatka Peninsula (as well as on Hokkaido and Sakhalin and in the Kuril Islands).

In 2010 Shanghai Birding member Per Alström et al. proposed the current way of viewing the Arctic-type warblers. Previously, the taxon examinandus was putative, not even reaching the subspecies level; Alström and his team showed that examinandus, with its distinctive song and call, merits recognition not as a subspecies of Arctic Warbler but as a species in its own right.

Of the three Arctic-type species, Japanese Leaf Warbler most stands out, being on average yellower than the two others. Arctic and Kamchatka look much more alike.

There are, however, some slight differences. Kamchatka is said to have a “marginally longer bill, tarsi and tail” than Arctic (del Hoyo & Collar). Sure enough, the Kamchatka I photographed is long-billed. Take a look below.

Arctic Warbler (top) and Kamchatka Leaf Warbler. Both by Craig Brelsford.
Arctic Warbler (top) and Kamchatka Leaf Warbler. Both birds show the classic features of Arctic-type warblers, among them a long supercilium that does not reach bill base, a dark smudge on the lower mandible, and mottled ear coverts. Kamchatka is said to be slightly greener on average than Arctic, a description that these photos do not contradict. The bill of Kamchatka is also marginally longer than Arctic’s, and in these profile shots one notes the longer bill of the Kamchatka and the stouter bill of the Arctic. I would not suggest basing an Arctic-Kamchatka ID on plumage and bare parts. Plumage and bare parts can, however, enhance the quality of a song- or call-based ID. Top: South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997), Cape Nanhui, 13 May 2017. Bottom: Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083), 4 June 2017. (Craig Brelsford)

Michael and I heard our loudest song and calls during that first, early morning encounter. However, we heard Kamchatka calling throughout the day.

Our new Shanghai record, combined with late-May and early-June records from nearby Zhejiang, suggests that in this region, once the wave of Arctics passes through around 15 May, Kamchatka Leaf Warbler may be the Arctic-type to look out for.

Bibliography

Alström P., T. Saitoh, D. Williams, I. Nishiumi, Y. Shigeta, K. Ueda, M. Irestedt, M. Björklund & U. Olsson. 2011. The Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis — three anciently separated cryptic species revealed. Ibis 153:395-410.

Brelsford, C. 2017. eBird Checklist: http://ebird.org/ebird/view/checklist/S37369822. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Ithaca, New York, USA. Available: http://www.ebird.org. (Accessed: June 6, 2017).

Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.
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Brelsford, Craig, moderator. Shanghai Birding, a WeChat group. Discussions with various birders, chief among them Hangzhou birder Cheng Qian, who had information about sightings of P. examinandus in Zhejiang. Beijing-based Swedish birder Jan-Erik Nilsén also provided timely advice. To join Shanghai Birding, fill out the form on the shanghaibirding.com Sightings page. Please state that you wish to join Shanghai Birding. You may also friend Craig Brelsford (WeChat ID: craigbrelsford). In your friend request, please make it clear that you wish to join Shanghai Birding.

del Hoyo, J. & Collar, N. (2017). Kamchatka Leaf-warbler (Phylloscopus examinandus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/1343935 on 6 June 2017).

Jackett, N. 25 Feb. 2016. First Kamchatka Leaf Warbler recorded for Australian Mainland. eBird Australia: http://ebird.org/content/australia/news/first-recorded-kamchatka-leaf-warbler-for-australian-mainland/. eBird, Ithaca, New York, USA. Available: http://www.ebird.org. (Accessed: June 6, 2017).

Featured image: Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus examinandus. On 4 June 2017 at Cape Nanhui, birders Michael Grunwell and Craig Brelsford found the individual pictured here and three others. Photos by Craig Brelsford.

‘One of My All-time Ornithological Highlights’

“I have thought a lot about yesterday and can honestly say, it must be one of my all-time ornithological highlights.”

— Dr. Mike May, message to Craig Brelsford, 14 May 2017

Those are the words not of a new birder, but of a highly experienced visiting birder with thousands of birds on his life list who resides in bird-rich Extremadura, Spain.

Birding Cape Nanhui at the height of the spring migration left Mike May open-mouthed. Should anyone be surprised? The southeastern-most point of Shanghai is a world-class birding site.

Orange-headed Thrush Geokichla citrina, Cape Nanhui, 13 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
Orange-headed Thrush Geokichla citrina made a thrilling appearance 13 May 2017 at the Photographers’ Corner at the Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229). (Craig Brelsford)

Mike’s 92-species day, Sat. 13 May 2017, with Beijing-based Swedish birder Jan-Erik Nilsén and me included ultra-rarities such as Orange-headed Thrush as well as Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler and Lanceolated Warbler. A pair of sub-adult Black-faced Spoonbill were getting by on the ever-shrinking pools at the beleaguered site.

The eBird list for Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland.
The eBird list for Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland. Submit your own records! It’s fun!

These records brought the all-time list for Cape Nanhui to 288 species, according to eBird–making Cape Nanhui the second-hottest birding hot spot in China.

Let me say that again: Of the thousands of birding spots in this vast, mega-diverse nation, the cape 60 km southeast of People’s Square is second only to Baihualing in Yunnan in species noted.

Sound unbelievable? Let me say something even more unbelievable: Not only is this rich spot completely unprotected, with not even a square meter preserved in any legal way; but it is, to the contrary, being actively destroyed, even as I tap out these words.

The backdrop to the work of Mike, Jan-Erik, and me was fleets of bulldozers and backhoes, busy throughout the weekend. They clattered and clanged, and the pumps transferring water into the newly dug canals whirred and chugged.

Mike May (R) and Zhāng Dōngshēng (张东升) meet. Dōngshēng, a professor at Shanghai Ocean University, is leading an effort to conserve Cape Nanhui.
Mike May (R) and Zhāng Dōngshēng (张东升) meet. Dōngshēng, a professor at Shanghai Ocean University, is leading an effort to conserve Cape Nanhui. (Craig Brelsford)

The pace of transformation is faster than ever now.

“Nanhui is gone,” my partners and I said.

A major ecological area, a place combining ease of access to millions of residents of Earth’s largest city and a favorable position on Earth’s greatest migratory flyway, is being utterly transformed.

While the Cape Nanhui that I have long known falls, huge tracts of adjacent tidal mudflat are being reclaimed, adding dozens of square kilometers to the land area of Cape Nanhui. Birding there in theory could have a future. A Cape Nanhui Nature Reserve could be set up in the new area.

Where Black-faced Spoonbill once foraged, digging machines now crawl, transforming critical reed-bed and marshland habitat into an artificial forest. Looming in the background is the brand-new satellite city, Lingang. Nanhui, Shanghai, 26 March 2015.
Where Black-faced Spoonbill once foraged, digging machines now crawl. Where once one savored the sound of Marsh Grassbird and Reed Parrotbill, now one cringes at the clanging of machines. No place in mainland Shanghai matches Cape Nanhui as a magnet to migrating birds. Cape Nanhui is one of the best birding hot spots in China, and it is not only completely unprotected, but it is being actively destroyed.

But even as the Cape Nanhui we know falls, no one, to my knowledge, has hastened to reassure conservationists that areas in the newly reclaimed land will be set aside for birds.

In the city-province of Shanghai, which is the size of the U.S. state of Delaware, a few places have indeed been set aside, among them Chongming Dongtan. But those reserves are small, on remote islands far from mainland Shanghai, and practically unreachable by the millions of middle-class Shanghainese who lack a car.

Cape Nanhui, by contrast, is easily reachable from the city. And it is the one place where masses of bird lovers can conveniently get a taste of the grand spectacle that is spring migration along the east coast of the Eurasian supercontinent.

That opportunity is being taken away, not only from the birders alive today, but also from the birders of the future.

THE THRILL OF NANHUI IN MAY

Lesser Coucal takes off. Cape Nanhui, 14 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
Lesser Coucal takes off. Centropus bengalensis breeds in Earth’s greatest city. Recently, shanghaibirding.com examined Lesser Coucal and the other Cuckoos of Shanghai. (Craig Brelsford)

Our agony over the fate of Nanhui was tempered by the joy of birding. Orange-headed Thrush showed up Saturday at the Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229). With the two vertical bars on its face, our specimen was either of race melli (breeds Guangdong, etc.) or courtoisi (Anhui).

On Sunday the Magic Parking Lot delivered singing Grey-crowned Warbler Seicercus tephrocephalus, and in Microforest 2 (30.926013, 121.970705) an appearance was made by Alström’s Warbler S. soror. Neither breeds in the region; both are very rare vagrants to Shanghai.

Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883) gave us singing Yellow-breasted Bunting in full breeding finery and singing Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler. I captured the latter’s song, rarely heard in Shanghai.

Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler Locustella certhiola, 13 May 2017, Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883) (00:13; 2.1 MB)

The Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662) near Eiffel Tower was highly productive, yielding Lanceolated Warbler, Forest Wagtail, and Striated Heron.

Varities of Eastern Yellow Wagtail. L: 'Green-headed Wagtail' Motacilla tschutschensis taivana. R: 'Alaska Wagtail' Motacilla tschutschensis tschutschensis. Both photographed within a few meters of each other dry rice paddies at Cape Nanhui, 13 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
Varieties of Eastern Yellow Wagtail. L: ‘Green-headed Wagtail’ Motacilla tschutschensis taivana. R: ‘Alaska Wagtail’ M. t. tschutschensis. Both photographed on dry rice paddies at Cape Nanhui, 13 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)

Other highlights from Saturday along the 30-km stretch of coastline:

Yellow Bittern 2
Chinese Egret 14
Pacific Golden Plover 1
Pheasant-tailed Jacana 1
Black-tailed Godwit 17
Grey-tailed Tattler 2
White-winged Tern 260
Lesser Coucal 1
Common Cuckoo 12 singing
Tiger Shrike 4
Sand Martin ca. 300
Collared Finchbill 2
Arctic Warbler 5 singing
Thick-billed Warbler 1
Marsh Grassbird 2 singing
Forest Wagtail 1

Complete checklist here.

Sunday saw Jan-Erik and me note 78 species.

L-R: Jan-Erik Nilsn, Charles Wu, and 12-year-old birder Young Jack Han view Tiger Shrike in Microforest 4, 14 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
L-R: Jan-Erik Nilsén, Charles Wu, and 12-year-old birder Jack Han view Tiger Shrike in Microforest 4, 14 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)

Highlights:

Japanese Sparrowhawk 1
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper 350
Dunlin 350
Oriental Pratincole 3
Little Tern 5
Hair-crested Drongo 8
Dusky Warbler 1
Taiga Flycatcher 1
Pechora Pipit 17 singing

Complete checklist here.

A DISCUSSION ABOUT SEICERCUS

Per's PDF
Some of the more challenging Seicercus warblers. This graphic was created by Shanghai Birding member Per Alström for a presentation he made to the Beijing Birdwatching Society in 2012. The PDF is downloadable through shanghaibirding.com.

Shanghai Birding is the WeChat companion to this Web site. Our 126 members include everyone from persons brand-new to birding to some of the most knowledgeable birders in China. We discuss everything from the most common species to the most arcane.

You can join Shanghai Birding. Just friend me on WeChat (WeChat ID: craigbrelsford). Let me know that you want to join Shanghai Birding. I will add you.

Here is an edited transcript of a recent conversation on Shanghai Birding about the Seicercus warblers at Cape Nanhui:

Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.
Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.

Paul Holt: Can you post your recording of yesterday’s [14 May 2017] Alström’s Warbler as well please, Craig?

Craig Brelsford: Will post after I get home. Meanwhile, have you assessed the recording I posted yesterday morning? Do you agree it’s Grey-crowned Warbler? Jonathan Martinez, I’d like your view, too!

Craig Brelsford had earlier posted these sound recordings:

Grey-crowned Warbler Seicercus tephrocephalus 1/3, 14 May 2017, Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229), Nanhui (00:36; 3 MB)

Grey-crowned Warbler 2/3 (00:49; 3.6 MB)

Grey-crowned Warbler 3/3 (01:08; 4.3 MB)

PH: Yes, Grey-crowned Warbler!

PH: For what it’s worth, while there are probably 30+ records of “golden-spectacled warblers” from coastal Hebei, very, very few have been as well documented as Craig’s and team’s recent Grey-crowned. Many have been photographed but far fewer sound-recorded. Alström’s is so far the only one so far known to breed north of the Qinling Shan (it’s a scarce and very local breeder at two, possibly three, sites in Beijing). Personally I’ve never seen soror in coastal Hebei (nor am I aware of any being sound-recorded there), but I have noted (and sound-recorded) 2 Bianchi’s S. valentini and 1 Martens’s S. omeiensis in coastal Hebei. I understand that the only (?) three coastal Hebei birds that have been captured and had their DNA compared have all been omeiensis. We’re very, very far from ascertaining the true statuses of these Seicercus in our area, but you perhaps should/might see more in Shanghai and coastal Zhejiang. As many of you already know, there are some excellent sound recordings of these on Per’s site.

CB: Great analysis, Paul, and great that you point out the resources on Per’s site. Jan-Erik and I got good sound recordings of the purported soror yesterday, and Charles Wu and I got some good shots, among them images of the outer tail feathers, which definitely had some white in them.

CB: Grey-crowned Warbler appeared in the microforests almost exactly a year ago: http://www.shanghaibirding.com/2016/05/20/great-records/

PH: Excellent, Craig. As you know they’ve all got white in their outer tails. Alström’s (aka Plain-tailed) doesn’t have much …

Alstrom's Warbler with splayed tail feathers. Craig Brelsford
Alström’s Warbler with splayed tail feathers. (Craig Brelsford)

CB: Right, Paul; thanks. The discussion yesterday was one of comparison and degree. How little must the white be in the tail, we were asking ourselves, for a Seicercus to “qualify” as Alström’s/Plain-tailed? Was the white in our photos a little or a lot? We ended up thinking a little, and that and the song we recorded led us to a determination of soror. I’ll post my photos and recordings as soon as I’m home.

PH: Personally, Craig, I find it very difficult to judge the amount and distribution of white on the tails of these Seicercus in the field and think that a good photo with the tail splayed would really be necessary. Even then, the differences are small and subtle. Tricky group!

Jonathan Martinez: Regarding the ID of these Seicercus, I have found that call is by far the easiest way to ID them. They all have a characteristic call. Some of them, like Alström’s or Bianchi’s, are usually quite vocal; others not as much. It requires much more experience or use of sonogram to ID them by song, but a few of them (Alström’s especially) include their call in their song, and some of them (Grey-crowned, Martens’s) include a trill in their song. Others do not (Alström, Bianchi’s). ID-ing them on plumage is, of course, a level up.

Alstrom's Warbler, Microforest 2, 14 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)
Alström’s Warbler Seicercus soror, Microforest 2, 14 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)

Here is the voice of the Alström’s Warbler that I recorded with my Olympus DM-650 pocket recorder:

Alström’s Warbler Seicercus soror 1/4, 14 May 2017, Microforest 2 (30.926013, 121.970705), Nanhui (00:50; 3.6 MB)

Alström’s Warbler 2/4 (00:08; 1.9 MB)

Alström’s Warbler 3/4 (01:08; 4.3 MB)

Alström’s Warbler 4/4 (00:41; 3.2 MB)

Featured image: Visiting British birder Mike May uses Craig Brelsford’s spotting scope to scan for birds at Cape Nanhui, Shanghai, 13 May 2017. (Craig Brelsford)

Rites of Spring

For birders in Earth’s greatest city, finding Oriental Plover is one of the rites of spring. Last Sun. 26 March 2017 on Shanghai’s Hengsha Island, our three-man birding team tracked down 25 of these passage migrants. The encounter was the latest in a series of interesting experiences I have had with the East Asian specialty.

Along with Shanghai birders Michael Grunwell and Komatsu Yasuhiko, I drove on Saturday night 25 March to Changxing Island, crossing to Hengsha on the ferry. We set up for the night at my accustomed bed and breakfast, Héngshā Bànrìxián Mínsù (横沙半日闲民宿, +86 150-2164-5467, no English).

A male Oriental Plover in partial breeding stands at Sanjiagang, 29 March 2010. Every year from about the third week of March until the middle of April, Charadrius veredus passes through Shanghai en route to its breeding grounds in Mongolia. For Shanghai birders, seizing the opportunity to view this East Asian specialty is an annual rite of spring. Craig Brelsford.
A male Oriental Plover in partial breeding plumage stands at the old sod farm (31.205847, 121.777368) at Sanjiagang, Pudong, 29 March 2010. Every year from the third week of March until the middle of April, Charadrius veredus passes through Shanghai en route to its breeding grounds in Mongolia. For Shanghai birders, seizing the brief opportunity to view this East Asian specialty is a rite of spring. (Craig Brelsford)

At 05:40 the next morning we zipped through the gate (31.297333, 121.859434) to the vast reclaimed area of Hengsha Island. Formerly intertidal shoals at the mouth of the Yangtze River, the area, now walled in, offers some of the best birding in Shanghai.

Michael and Hiko had no experience with Oriental Plover. I have seen the species various times. One of the highlights of my early birding career occurred on 29 March 2010. On a cool, early-spring afternoon, I lay on my belly in the presence of 30 Oriental Plover at the old sod farm (31.205847, 121.777368) at Sanjiagang in Pudong. What an unforgettable experience that was.

Oriental Plover, 29 March 2010, Sanjiagang (Craig Brelsford).
Oriental Plover, 29 March 2010, sod farm, Sanjiagang. Lying on the cool grass in the presence of those serene long-distance travelers, I felt I had entered birding heaven.  (Craig Brelsford)

The sod farm has long since been destroyed, but memories of those times, as well as my observations of the species on its breeding grounds near Hulun Lake in Inner Mongolia, still live in me, and they told me where to look for the bird. One needs to find habitat reminiscent of the dry, stony steppe on which it breeds.

On Hengsha, such habitat is abundant, and we scoured all the likely spots, among them the place where my wife Elaine Du and I found 3 Oriental Plover last April 9.

Oriental Plover habitat at Hengsha (top) and Inner Mongolia (bottom). Top: Hiko. Bottom: Craig Brelsford
Oriental Plover habitat on Hengsha Island (top) and in Inner Mongolia (bottom). Note the similarities between the flat, grassy area on Hengsha Island and the steppe near Hulun Lake. A migrating Oriental Plover, especially one that may have flown virtually non-stop from Australia, sees the scene at top and thinks of home. Top: Komatsu Yasuhiko, 26 March 2017, 31.301475, 121.917442. Bottom: Craig Brelsford, 24 July 2015, 48.254637, 118.338622.

We were driving along the coastal road that skirts the southern edge of the reclaimed area. The morning was hazy, with air pollution giving me the sniffles, but even with the reduced visibility one could appreciate the power of the Yangtze looming behind.

Here, the longest river in Asia releases into the East China Sea the water collected along its course of 6,300 km (3,915 mi.). On clear days, one can see the famous skyline of Pudong, 38 km (24 mi.) away. At Hengsha Island, one stands on the eastern edge of Eurasia at the mouth of China’s greatest river in the shadow of Earth’s greatest city.

As we drove, the reed beds and marshy areas began to recede, and there opened up before us drier, grassier habitat, perfect for Oriental Plover. Stopping the car, I intoned, in a voice recalling Brigham Young, “This is the place.” (The coordinates are 31.301475, 121.917442.)

Michael Grunwell views Oriental Plover on Hengsha Island, 26 March 2017 (Komatsu Yasuhiko).
Michael Grunwell views Oriental Plover in steppe-like habitat, Hengsha, 26 March. (Komatsu Yasuhiko)

We broke out a forest of tripods and set upon them our spotting scopes. Michael, the seasoned veteran, saw the plovers first. Continuing our Wild West theme, Michael shouted, “Eureka!” His head was motionless, glued to the scope, but his arms were waving, and he was dancing a jig. The 49er had just struck gold.

Michael and Hiko moved in for a closer look. I stayed above, scanning the scene through my Swarovski ATX-95. Males and females were in partial breeding plumage. They were running fast across the turf, picking off invertebrates. Twice they flew, and I appreciated their powerful, erratic flight and long wings.

We found 16 Oriental Plover there. We found another 9 on the north shore of the reclaimed area, on the mudflats.

NOTES ON ORIENTAL PLOVER

Oriental Plover breeds mainly in Mongolia. The breeding range extends into China in Hulunbeier, the northernmost portion of Inner Mongolia. In Shanghai, Charadrius veredus is an uncommon springtime passage migrant.
Oriental Plover breeds mainly in Mongolia. The range extends into China in Hulunbeier, the northernmost prefecture of Inner Mongolia. In Shanghai and at various places along the Chinese coast, Charadrius veredus is an uncommon springtime passage migrant. Autumn records are scanty, and the migration route of Oriental Plover south through China is not entirely clear. Map by Wikipedia/Craig Brelsford.

Oriental Plover Charadrius veredus is listed as a species of Least Concern by the IUCN. A survey in 2010 came up with an estimated world population of 160,000, an encouraging number. The species is helped by the sparse human population both in the area where it breeds (mainly Mongolia) and where it winters (mainly Australia).

The species may be helped as well by its migration patterns. There is evidence that migrating Oriental Plover overfly much of Southeast Asia and possibly even China, areas where the hand of man is much heavier than in Mongolia and Australia.

In the entry for Oriental Plover in Handbook of the Birds of the World, T. Piersma mentions a “scarcity of records between China and the non-breeding grounds,” suggesting that migrating Oriental Plover make a “non-stop flight between these two zones.” Robson, in Birds of Southeast Asia, describes Oriental Plover as a “vagrant/rare passage migrant.”

Oriental Plover doze just meters away from the photographer at Sanjiagang, 29 March 2010. It is probable that these plovers had just completed a very long flight, possibly all the way from Australia, before landing here. Craig Brelsford.
Exhausted Oriental Plover doze just meters away from the photographer at Sanjiagang, 29 March 2010. These plovers had probably just completed a very long leg of the journey from Australia to Mongolia. (Craig Brelsford)

Piersma says Oriental Plover is “very abundant” on migration in the Yangtze River Valley. That is doubtful. Oriental Plover are certainly not abundant in Shanghai; indeed, in autumn they are virtually unrecorded here (as well as in much of eastern China). The city may nonetheless serve as a staging area for some portion of the species in spring.

My anecdotal evidence may lend credence to the idea that Oriental Plover fly mind-boggling distances between Australia and Mongolia. During my close encounter with the 30 Oriental Plover at Sanjiagang, the plovers were clearly exhausted. Some fell asleep right in front of me. How many kilometers had they just flown? Hundreds? Thousands?

The pure white head of breeding male Oriental Plover is diagnostic. Sanjiagang, 2 April 2010. Craig Brelsford.
This male Oriental Plover has nearly attained full breeding plumage. Note the diagnostic white head, still showing some of the darker non-breeding feathers. Charadrius veredus is the Ghost Rider of plovers. Sanjiagang, 2 April 2010. (Craig Brelsford)

Oriental Plover is most closely related to, and was once considered conspecific with, Caspian Plover Charadrius asiaticus. Breeding male Oriental Plover is readily distinguishable from Caspian by its purely white head. The thick black breast band on breeding Oriental male is also distinctive.

Non-breeding Greater Sand Plover and Lesser Sand Plover are smaller and more compact and have narrower breast bands than non-breeding Oriental Plover. In flight, Oriental Plover lacks the white wing bar seen on the sand plovers.

OTHER HIGHLIGHTS

Birds of Hengsha Island, 26 March 2017. Clockwise from top L: Bar-tailed Godwit, showing (top R) band and ring combination indicative of processing on Chongming Island; Common Reed Bunting; and Eurasian Curlew. (Craig Brelsford)
Birds of Hengsha Island, 26 March 2017. Clockwise from top L: Bar-tailed Godwit, showing (top R) band and ring combination indicative of processing on Chongming Island; Common Reed Bunting; and Eurasian Curlew. (Craig Brelsford)

Michael, Hiko, and I noted 64 species on Sun. 26 March 2017. Besides the plovers, we had 10 Marsh Grassbird singing from deep cover, Common Reed Bunting feeding alone on the ground, and 4 Bar-tailed Godwit, 1 of which had been banded on Chongming Island.

Also Garganey 59, Eurasian Teal 625, Eurasian Bittern 8 booming, Hen Harrier 1 male, Pied Harrier 1 female, Eurasian Curlew 2, Great Knot 2, Ruff 6, Sanderling 1, Dunlin 350, and Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler 3 singing.

At Nanhui, we had skittish Short-eared Owl and breeding Black-necked Grebe (Dishui Lake). We found no Hooded Crane, our well-known individual most likely having departed after its historic winter sojourn on the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula.

COLLECTING RECORDS ON WECHAT

Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.
Join Shanghai Birding for the very latest bird sightings in Shanghai.

On 28 March 2017 on Chongming, Shanghai birder Fàn Jūn (范钧) found 7 Long-billed Dowitcher feeding together. The flock of 7 may be the largest ever recorded of the species in Shanghai.

Fàn Jūn reported the finding on the Shanghai Birding WeChat group, and I published the report and his photo on the Sightings page of shanghaibirding.com.

To become a member of Shanghai Birding, friend me on WeChat (ID: craigbrelsford). I’ll then add you to Shanghai’s best birding chat group.

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DAY LISTS
Lists are generated on eBird then adjusted to comport with my first reference, the IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 2 for Sunday 26 March 2017 (50 species)

Oriental Plover, 23 April 2010, Sanjiagang. (Craig Brelsford)
Oriental Plover, 23 April 2010. This photo was taken at a place once reliable for Charadrius veredus: the old sod farm at Sanjiagang, 6.5 km N of Pudong Airport (31.205847, 121.777368). The farm has been destroyed, but steppe-like habitat required by Oriental Plover remains on Hengsha Island. There, on 26 March 2017, a trio of foreign birdwatchers noted 25 Oriental Plover. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted on Hengsha Island (Héngshā Dǎo [横沙岛]), small alluvial island at mouth of Yangtze River in Shanghai, China. S gate to reclaimed area at 31.297333, 121.859434. Cloudy; low 7° C, high 17° C. Wind WNW 16 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 177 (unhealthful). Visibility 10 km. Sunrise 05:50, sunset 18:10. SUN 26 MAR 2017 05:40-10:40. Craig Brelsford, Michael Grunwell, & Komatsu Yasuhiko.

Garganey Spatula querquedula 59
Northern Shoveler S. clypeata 8
Gadwall Mareca strepera 28
Eurasian Teal Anas crecca 625
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 20
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 1
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris 8
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 40
Great Egret A. alba 10
Intermediate Egret A. intermedia 15
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 30
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 28
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus 1
Pied Harrier C. melanoleucos 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 20
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 70
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 3
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 4
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 8
Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus 1
Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus 220
Little Ringed Plover C. dubius 1
Oriental Plover C. veredus 25
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata 2
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica 4
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris 2
Ruff C. pugnax 6
Sanderling C. alba 1
Dunlin C. alpina 350
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 6
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 65
Common Redshank T. totanus 6
Vega Gull Larus vegae vegae/mongolicus 1
Oriental Skylark Alauda gulgula 5
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 7
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 12
Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone canturians/H. borealis borealis 3
Marsh Grassbird Locustella pryeri 10
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 15
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 3
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 10
Dusky Thrush Turdus eunomus 8
Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea 1
White Wagtail M. alba 75
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 4
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens japonicus 5
Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala 1
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 40
Common Reed Bunting E. schoeniclus 1

List 2 of 2 for Sunday 26 March 2017 (22 species)

Japanese birder Komatsu Yasuhiko ('Hiko') stands with his beloved scope and tripod at Dishui Lake, 26 March 2017 (Craig Brelsford).
Shanghai-based Japanese birder Komatsu Yasuhiko with his beloved scope and tripod, Dishui Lake, 26 March 2017. (Craig Brelsford)

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. We covered the coastal road between Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558) and Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455). Among the points along this 30 km stretch are Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), a site providing access to the reed beds at the mouth of the Dazhi River (Dàzhì Hé [大治河]); Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074); Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083); Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635); Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229); Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551); South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997); Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047); & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). List includes birds noted at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). Cloudy; low 7° C, high 17° C. Wind WNW 16 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 177 (unhealthful). Visibility 10 km. Sunrise 05:50, sunset 18:10. SUN 26 MAR 2017 12:50-15:50. Craig Brelsford, Michael Grunwell, & Komatsu Yasuhiko.

Falcated Duck Mareca falcata 30
Eurasian Wigeon M. penelope 50
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 28
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 13
Black-necked Grebe P. nigricollis 1
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 1
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus 3
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida 1
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 3
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus 1
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops 2
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 1
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica 19
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 10
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 1
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 2
Dusky Thrush Turdus eunomus 3
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 2
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 40
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis 5
White Wagtail M. alba 12
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata 1

WORKS CONSULTED

Brazil, Mark. Birds of East Asia. Princeton University Press. Oriental Plover, p. 164.

del Hoyo, Josep, et al., eds. The Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions. Vol. 3, “Hoatzin to Auks.” Species accounts for Oriental Plover and Caspian Plover (p. 438) by T. Piersma.

John MacKinnon wrote the most influential field guide ever published about China's birds.
In December 2016, John MacKinnon published his second guest post for shanghaibirding.com.

MacKinnon, John & Karen Phillipps. A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Oxford University Press. Oriental Plover, p. 178. Authors mention Hulun Lake as breeding area for species. Curiously, Liaoning is also mentioned.

Message, Stephen & Don Taylor. Waders of Europe, Asia and North America. Oriental Plover, pp. 66 & 152.

Robson, Craig. Birds of Southeast Asia. Oriental Plover, p. 106. Consulted to get a better idea of the rarity of Oriental Plover in Southeast Asia.

Svensson, Lars & Killian Mullarney & Dan Zetterström. Collins Bird Guide, 2nd ed. HarperCollins, 1999-2009. Caspian Plover, p. 142.

Featured image: On 29 March 2010, Craig Brelsford found 30 exhausted Oriental Plover at the old sod farm at Sanjiagang (31.205847, 121.777368), 6.5 km (4 mi.) north of Pudong Airport in Shanghai. I got the image here, as well as all my plover images in this post, with my old Nikon D300 plus Nikkor 600mm f/4 lens.

Messengers

Editor’s note: In recent weeks, Shanghai has had extraordinary visits by three species of crane. Since 12 Nov. 2016, 3 Siberian Crane, a Critically Endangered species, have been recorded regularly in a reclaimed area of Hengsha Island (photo above, left). On 10 Dec. 2016, Endangered Red-crowned Crane made the first recorded visit by that species to Cape Nanhui (top right). Also since 12 Nov. 2016, Vulnerable Hooded Crane has been recorded regularly at Cape Nanhui (bottom right). Before 12 Nov., Hooded Crane had never been recorded on the Shanghai Peninsula. Photos by Craig Brelsford.

The appearance on 10 Dec. 2016 of 2 Red-crowned Crane at Pudong’s Cape Nanhui was more than just a historic, first-ever sighting. It was a message. The endangered cranes, as well as the Siberian Crane on Hengsha Island and Hooded Crane at Cape Nanhui, are telling us that habitat is steadily disappearing elsewhere along the Chinese coast, particularly in Jiangsu; that the habitats in Shanghai are some of the best that remain; and that those habitats require world-class protection. The most pressing need is the creation of a world-class, small to mid-sized wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui.

Siberian Crane, Hengsha, 7 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Siberian Crane in flight. Hengsha Island, 7 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.

Errant cranes migrating along the Chinese coast may once have settled for a while somewhere in Jiangsu. Every year, however, cranes migrating along the coast of that densely populated province find fewer and fewer places suitable to them. My wife Elaine Du and I have surveyed the Jiangsu coastline from Qidong on the Yangtze River 250 km north to Yancheng National Nature Reserve. We have seen with our own eyes the dramatic transformation of the Jiangsu coast. Even areas in Jiangsu receiving considerable international attention, such as Yangkou and the coastal areas of Dongtai, are under threat.

Cape Nanhui may not seem like a first-rate natural area, but it is in better condition than almost any place I have seen between Qidong and Yancheng. I say, therefore, that the recent crane sightings in Shanghai have come about in large part because elsewhere so much has been lost. The cranes have nowhere else to go.

Shanghai birders search for the Hooded Crane sojourning at Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Shanghai birders search for the Hooded Crane sojourning at Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. The new city of Lingang, which did not exist 10 years ago, looms in the background. Craig Brelsford.

And that is why conserving Cape Nanhui is so important. Shanghai is facing a crisis, a “danger-opportunity” (危机). The 危 or danger is that amid the wholesale destruction of so much coastal habitat elsewhere, Shanghai will follow suit and destroy its remaining good habitat. The 机 or opportunity is for Shanghai to gather into its bosom the birds ejected from Jiangsu–to be not only the economic but also the conservationist leader on the Chinese coast. The creation at Cape Nanhui of an easily accessible, world-class, small to mid-sized wetland reserve along the lines of Sungei Buloh in Singapore would be a way of avoiding the 危 and seizing the 机.

The case for an easily accessible wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui could scarcely be more clear-cut:

(1) Cape Nanhui is of extraordinary environmental importance. The tip of the Shanghai Peninsula between the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay, Cape Nanhui is a stepping stone for birds migrating across those bodies of water. Cape Nanhui also holds large reed beds, habitat critical to Reed Parrotbill and other species at risk.

The largest component of the city-province of Shanghai is the Shanghai Peninsula, a projection of land between the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. Cape Nanhui is the tip of the peninsula, is a critically important stop for migrating birds, and is completely unprotected. A nature reserve at Cape Nanhui would form a third ‘stepping stone’ for birds crossing the Yangtze Delta, joining the reserves at Chongming Dongtan and Jiuduansha. Photo by NASA, customized by Craig Brelsford.
Cape Nanhui is the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula, a headland between the mouth of the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay. As the satellite image above illustrates, a nature reserve at Cape Nanhui would form a ‘stepping stone’ for birds crossing the Yangtze Delta, joining the reserves at Chongming Dongtan and Jiuduansha as well as the largely undeveloped reclaimed land on Hengsha. (Newly reclaimed land on Hengsha not shown in this 2005 image.) Photo by NASA, customized by Craig Brelsford.

The 2 Red-crowned Crane this past Saturday were the latest in a parade of endangered birds that I and other birders have noted at the Cape over the years. Critically Endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper uses Cape Nanhui, as does Endangered Nordmann’s Greenshank. Around 2 percent of the world’s Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill are dependent on Cape Nanhui for several months each year. Large reed beds remain at Cape Nanhui and are the final strongholds on the Shanghai Peninsula of Near Threatened Marsh Grassbird and Near Threatened Reed Parrotbill. The latter species, a candidate for Shanghai Provincial Bird, will virtually disappear from mainland Shanghai if the reed beds at Nanhui are destroyed.

(2) Shanghai is clearly under-performing on the conservationist front. More must be done, and a good place to begin is Cape Nanhui.

Hen Harrier (top) and Eastern Marsh Harrier, Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. These photos show both the threats to the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula and the environmental opportunities still there. On the one hand, buildings and roads continue to encroach on the reed beds; the large farm building in the bottom photo was completed only in the past year. Further encroachments will erode the quality still further and deprive species such as Reed Parrotbill of even more habitat. On the other hand, habitat good enough to attract harriers remains. In the bottom photo, the harrier is flying directly over the reed bed (<a href="https://www.google.com/maps/place/30%C2%B055'46.2%22N+121%C2%B057'37.1%22E/@30.929492,121.9581253,872m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x0:0x0!8m2!3d30.929492!4d121.960314" target="_blank">30.929492, 121.960314</a>) adjacent to the defunct wetland reserve. This reed bed covers a square kilometer, is untouched, and provides habitat critical to species dependent on reeds, such as Near Threatened <a href="http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22715480/0" target="_blank">Marsh Grassbird</a> and <a href="http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22721016/0" target="_blank">Japanese Reed Bunting</a>. In the top photo, the untouched reed bed is visible in the mid-ground, with the harrier making use of adjacent rice fields. Even small reserves can be effective, especially if bordered by agricultural areas. If managed correctly, a small to mid-sized reserve at Cape Nanhui would cost little, deliver much, and give environmental face to Shanghai. Photos by Craig Brelsford.
Hen Harrier (top) and Eastern Marsh Harrier, Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. These photos show both the threats to the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula and the environmental opportunities still there. On the one hand, buildings and roads continue to encroach on the reed beds; the large farm building in the bottom photo was completed only in the past year. Further encroachments will erode the quality still further and deprive species such as Reed Parrotbill of even more habitat. On the other hand, habitat good enough to attract harriers remains. In the bottom photo, the harrier is flying directly over the reed bed (30.929492, 121.960314) adjacent to the defunct wetland reserve. This reed bed covers a square kilometer, is untouched, and provides habitat critical to species dependent on reeds, such as Near Threatened Marsh Grassbird and Japanese Reed Bunting. In the top photo, the untouched reed bed is visible in the mid-ground, with the harrier making use of adjacent rice fields. Even small reserves can be effective, especially if bordered by agricultural areas. If managed correctly, a small to mid-sized reserve at Cape Nanhui would cost little, deliver much, and give environmental face to Shanghai. Photos by Craig Brelsford.

Nature reserves have been established only on the extreme fringes of the city-province (which is a third the size of Wales). There are no reserves in mainland Pudong, a giant coastal district nearly twice the size of Singapore. Nowhere in this megalopolis can residents without a car enjoy the natural side of Shanghai, a city with an extraordinarily rich natural heritage. There is no known plan to conserve any of the dozens of square kilometers of reclaimed land on Hengsha.

(3) Because it is in the back yard of Shanghai, a city-province of more than 25 million people, a well-run, easily accessible wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui could be the match to light the fire of conservation across all China.

Shanghai birders in defunct wetland reserve, Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. As China becomes a middle-income country, Chinese people will find themselves with more and more disposable income and leisure time. This is especially the case in Shanghai, whose living standards are rapidly approaching those of advanced Western countries. Middle-class Chinese will increasingly demand places for rest, relaxation, and nature appreciation. Shanghai currently has such places, and one of them is Cape Nanhui. The tip of the Shanghai Peninsula already has beautiful reed beds and amazing migratory birds, the inheritance of natural Shanghai. With proper management, Shanghai could preserve and showcase those wonders, giving future generations of Shanghainese a gift that will never stop giving. L-R: Zhāng Huá (张华), Zhāng Xuěhán (张雪寒), Lán Bāngxiàn (蓝邦宪), Lán Xī (兰溪), Craig Brelsford, Cài Jiàndōng (蔡见东), Zhāng Xiǎoyàn (张小艳), Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽), Chéng Yīxuān (程一轩), Xú Yáng (徐扬). Photo by Elaine Du.
Shanghai birders in defunct wetland reserve, Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. The people you see in this picture are the Johnny Appleseeds of birding and nature appreciation in China. Though still few in number, people such as they are laying the foundation for a future in which more Chinese cherish the natural environment. In Shanghai living standards have attained those of Western countries. Shanghainese such as these birders now possess disposable income and leisure time. Increasingly, these middle-class people will demand places for rest, relaxation, and nature appreciation. Shanghai, a city-province half as large as Northern Ireland, currently has such places, and the most easily accessible of them is Cape Nanhui. In the face of unremitting development, and despite being under no environmental protection, the tip of the Shanghai Peninsula still holds considerable reed beds and attracts many endangered migratory birds. With proper management, Shanghai could preserve and showcase the wonders of Cape Nanhui, giving future generations of Shanghainese a gift that will never stop giving. L-R: Zhāng Huá (张华), Zhāng Xuěhán (张雪寒), Lán Bāngxiàn (蓝邦宪), Lán Xī (兰溪), Craig Brelsford, Cài Jiàndōng (蔡见东), Zhāng Xiǎoyàn (张小艳), Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽), Chéng Yīxuān (程一轩), Xú Yáng (徐扬). Photo by Elaine Du.

Hundreds of thousands of children could visit the reserve with their parents using nothing more than the Metro and a quick taxi ride and be sleeping in their own bed that night, dreaming about the wild birds they had seen that day. For millions of parents and their kids, the weekend could be “Saturday, Disney; Sunday, Cape Nanhui Wetland.” A day at a Cape Nanhui Wetland would be an early introduction to the glories of natural Shanghai and would foster an appreciation of the natural world.

If Shanghai can be a world economic center and have world-class airports and a world-class skyline and world-class entertainment such as Disney, then it can and must have world-class preservation of its priceless coastline and migratory birds.

I repeat: The case for a world-class, easily accessible wetland reserve at Cape Nanhui is clear-cut.

111 SPECIES AT CORE SHANGHAI SITES

Shanghai birders at Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. Photo by Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽).
Shanghai birders at Nanhui. On 10 Dec. 2016, this international team attained the first-ever record of Red-crowned Crane on the Shanghai Peninsula. Standing, L-R: Andy Lee, Xú Yáng (徐扬), Xú Fènqiáng (徐奋强), Cài Jiàndōng (蔡见东), Michael Grunwell, Russell Boyman, & Lán Bāngxiàn (蓝邦宪). Bottom row: Zhāng Xuěhán (张雪寒), Zhāng Xiǎoyàn (张小艳), Zhāng Huá (张华), Lán Xī (兰溪), Chéng Yīxuān (程一轩), Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, Mrs. Hao, & Hǎo Lèzhī (郝乐之). Photo by Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽).

Elaine and I birded four of the eight days between 3 Dec. and 10 Dec. 2016, noting 111 species. We birded three days at Cape Nanhui, half a day on Hengsha Island, and half a day at Binjiang Forest Park in Pudong. On 10 Dec. Elaine and I led a group of members of the Shanghai Birding WeChat group on a tour of Nanhui. We birded the other days with Shanghai-based U.K. birder Michael Grunwell and U.S. birder Susan Lessner.

Major highlights were 2 Red-crowned Crane and Hooded Crane at Cape Nanhui and 3 Siberian Crane on Hengsha as well as Baikal Teal and Red-breasted Flycatcher at Nanhui and Ferruginous Duck on Hengsha.

Red-breasted Flycatcher, Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Red-breasted Flycatcher, Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. Rare Shanghai record. Note pinkish bill. Craig Brelsford.

Nanhui also gave us three-day counts of 20 Vulnerable Swan Goose, 14 Greater White-fronted Goose, 190 Tundra Swan (bewickii), 255 Common Shelduck, 11 Greater Scaup, 4 Black-necked Grebe, Brown Crake, Vulnerable Saunders’s Gull, 2 Mew Gull Larus canus, 2 Lesser Black-backed Gull (heuglini), late Eurasian Wryneck, uncommon winter visitor Dusky Warbler, 22 Near Threatened Reed Parrotbill, and 2 extralimital Common Starling.

We noted shorebird stragglers at Nanhui, among them Near Threatened Eurasian Curlew (2), Bar-tailed Godwit (1), and Red Knot (3). We recorded just 2 Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill, and we found 3 Black-collared Starling near Pudong Airport.

Hen Harrier with Peregrine Falcon, Hengsha, 6 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Hen Harrier with Peregrine Falcon, Hengsha, 7 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.

Hengsha gave us a rare Shanghai sighting of adult-male Hen Harrier as well as 3 Chinese Grey Shrike and impressive numbers of buntings. In a single stretch of scrub just 500 m long, we counted 14 Little Bunting, 18 Rustic Bunting, 17 Yellow-throated Bunting, 4 Black-faced Bunting, and 150 Pallas’s Reed Bunting.

Binjiang Forest Park once again proved to be one of the only places in urban Shanghai where Great Spotted Woodpecker is reliable. Thrushes were numerous, with Naumann’s Thrush leading the list.

The Day Lists
Lists are generated on eBird then adjusted to comport with my first reference, the IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 1 for Sat. 3 Dec. 2016 (69 species)

Dusky Thrush, 3 Dec. 2016, Nanhui. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
Dusky Thrush, 3 Dec. 2016, Nanhui. Photo by Craig Brelsford.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. We covered the coastal road from Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558) to Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455). Among the points along this 30 km stretch are Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), a site providing access to the reed beds at the mouth of the Dazhi River (Dàzhì Hé [大治河]); Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074); Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083); Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635); Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229); Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551); South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997); Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047); & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). List includes birds noted at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). Sunny. Low 8° C, high 14° C. Humidity 67%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind SE 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 74 (moderate). Sunrise 06:38, sunset 16:51. SAT 03 DEC 2016 07:15-16:50. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Michael Grunwell.

Swan Goose Anser cygnoides 10
Tundra Bean Goose A. serrirostris 53
Greater White-fronted Goose A. albifrons 2
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii 128
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna 155
Gadwall Anas strepera 7
Falcated Duck A. falcata 600
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 20
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 150
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 320
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 20
Northern Pintail A. acuta 10
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 15
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 40
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 47
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 5
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 40
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 20
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 80
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 70
Great Egret A. alba 23
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 160
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 5
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 10
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 53
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 2
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 1
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus 1
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 4
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 4
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 200
Hooded Crane Grus monacha 1
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 11
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 80
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus 100
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 10
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica 1
Red Knot Calidris canutus 3
Dunlin C. alpina 30
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 30
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 1
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 110
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus 1
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 1
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 2
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops 1
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 35
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 70
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 20
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 1
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 2
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 10
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 14
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 30
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 60
Pale Thrush Turdus pallidus 1
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 12
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 12
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 100
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis taivana 6
White Wagtail M. alba 20
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 6
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens japonicus 30
Grey-capped Greenfinch Chloris sinica 2
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata 12
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 6
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 15

List 1 of 1 for Tues. 6 Dec. 2016 (63 species)

Common Pochard, Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Common Pochard, a diving duck. Nanhui, 6 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. We covered the coastal road from Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558) to Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455). Among the points along this 30 km stretch are Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), a site providing access to the reed beds at the mouth of the Dazhi River (Dàzhì Hé [大治河]); Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074); Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083); Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635); Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229); Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551); South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997); Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047); & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). List includes birds noted at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). Sunny. Low 6° C, high 9° C. Humidity 54%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind NE 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 102 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:40, sunset 16:51. SAT 03 DEC 2016 06:50-17:10. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Susan Lessner.

Swan Goose Anser cygnoides 10
Tundra Bean Goose A. serrirostris 50
Greater White-fronted Goose A. albifrons 12
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii 62
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna 100
Falcated Duck Anas falcata 600
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 30
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 260
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 350
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 100
Northern Pintail A. acuta 120
Baikal Teal A. formosa 5
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 210
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 2
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 110
Greater Scaup A. marila 11
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 20
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 20
Black-necked Grebe P. nigricollis 4
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 100
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 80
Great Egret A. alba 20
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 200
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 6
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 28
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 3
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 2
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 400
Hooded Crane Grus monacha 1
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 120
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus 100
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 30
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata 2
Dunlin Calidris alpina 500
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 12
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia 25
Vega Gull Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 3
Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 7
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 2
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 1
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 30
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 4
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 40
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 15
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 2
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 1
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 8
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 20
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 30
Pale Thrush Turdus pallidus 3
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 2
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 3
Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 8
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 100
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis taivana 2
White Wagtail M. alba 40
Buff-bellied Pipit Anthus rubescens japonicus 30
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata 12
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 3
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 1

List 1 of 2 for Wed. 7 Dec. 2016 (48 species)

Zitting Cisticola, Hengsha Island, 7 Dec. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.
Zitting Cisticola, a drop of color in the drab scrub. Hengsha Island, 7 Dec. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.

Birds noted on Hengsha Island (Héngshā Dǎo [横沙岛]), small alluvial island at mouth of Yangtze River in Shanghai, China. S gate to reclaimed area at 31.298821, 121.854439. Mostly sunny, hazy. Low 3° C, high 15° C. Humidity 47%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind WNW 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 187 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:41, sunset 16:51. WED 07 DEC 2016 06:20-12:40. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Susan Lessner.

Gadwall Anas strepera 270
Falcated Duck A. falcata 30
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 2
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 50
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 15
Northern Pintail A. acuta 20
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 100
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 8
Ferruginous Duck A. nyroca 2
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 8
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 5
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris 2
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 15
Great Egret A. alba 6
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 25
Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus 1
Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus 1
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus 2
Circus sp. 3
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 2
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 15
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 80
Siberian Crane Grus leucogeranus 3
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus 20
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 1
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 18
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 3
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 2
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 14
Chinese Grey Shrike L. sphenocercus sphenocercus 3
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 8
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 20
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 5
Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis 5
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 2
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 6
Chinese Blackbird Turdus mandarinus 1
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 4
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 6
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 50
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 20
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 6
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens japonicus 22
Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla 14
Rustic Bunting E. rustica 18
Yellow-throated Bunting E. elegans 17
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 4
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 150

List 2 of 2 for Wed. 7 Dec. 2016 (22 species)

Collared Finchbill, Binjiang Forest Park, Pudong, 7 Dec. 2016. Digiscoped image by Elaine Du.
Collared Finchbill, parking lot of Binjiang Forest Park, Pudong, 7 Dec. 2016. Feral or natural? The jury’s still out on Binjiang’s Collared Finchbill, a mainly south Chinese species. Digiscoped image by Elaine Du.

Birds noted at Binjiang Forest Park, Pudong New Area (Pǔdōng Xīn Qū [浦东新区]), Shanghai, China (31.383916, 121.523818). Mostly sunny, hazy. Low 3° C, high 15° C. Humidity 47%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind WNW 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 187 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:41, sunset 16:51. WED 07 DEC 2016 14:45-16:45. Craig Brelsford, Elaine Du, & Susan Lessner.

Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 1
Vega Gull Larus vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 1
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 5
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 9
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops 3
Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major 2
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 2
Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus 3
Japanese Tit Parus minor 5
Collared Finchbill Spizixos semitorques 5
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 50
Chinese Hwamei Garrulax canorus 5
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 3
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 1
Chinese Blackbird T. mandarinus 32
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 14
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 16
Naumann’s Thrush T. naumanni 1
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 2
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 3
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 3
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla 29

List 1 of 1 for Sat. 10 Dec. 2016 (76 species)

Shanghai birders viewing Baikal Teal. 10 Dec. 2016. Craig Brelsford.
Shanghai birders viewing Baikal Teal at Cape Nanhui, 10 Dec. 2016. Photo by Craig Brelsford.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. We covered the coastal road from Binhai (Bīnhǎi Zhèn [滨海镇]; 31.006250, 121.885558) to Luchao (Lúcháo Gǎng [芦潮港]; 30.851109, 121.848455). Among the points along this 30 km stretch are Iron Track (31.003613, 121.907883), a site providing access to the reed beds at the mouth of the Dazhi River (Dàzhì Hé [大治河]); Big Bend (31.000321, 121.938074); Microforest 4 (30.953225, 121.959083); Microforest 1 (30.923889, 121.971635); Magic Parking Lot (30.884898, 121.968229); Magic GPS Point (30.880563, 121.964551); South Lock (30.860073, 121.909997); Eiffel Tower (30.850531, 121.878047); & the Marshy Agricultural Land (30.850707, 121.863662). List includes birds noted at Dishui Lake (30.908702, 121.945124). Mostly cloudy. Low 8° C, high 12° C. Humidity 59%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind ENE 15 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 70 (moderate). Sunrise 06:43, sunset 16:52. SAT 10 DEC 2016 07:10-15:00. Russell Boyman, Craig Brelsford, Cài Jiàndōng (蔡见东), Chéng Yīxuān (程一轩), Elaine Du, Michael Grunwell, Hǎo Lèzhī (郝乐之), Mrs. Hao, Hǎo Zhàokuān (郝兆宽), Lán Bāngxiàn (蓝邦宪), Lán Xī (兰溪), Andy Lee, Xú Fènqiáng (徐奋强), Xú Yáng (徐扬), Zhāng Huá (张华), Zhāng Xiǎoyàn (张小艳), Zhāng Xuěhán (张雪寒).

Tundra Bean Goose Anser serrirostris 28
Greater White-fronted Goose A. albifrons 1
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii 24
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna 12
Falcated Duck Anas falcata 400
Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope 20
Mallard A. platyrhynchos 100
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 100
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 50
Northern Pintail A. acuta 80
Baikal Teal A. formosa 4
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 50
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 20
Tufted Duck A. fuligula 60
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 32
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus 25
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 60
Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris 2
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 60
Great Egret A. alba 15
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 60
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 15
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 100
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus 3
Eastern Marsh Harrier Circus spilonotus 4
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus 2
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 3
White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus 1
Brown Crake A. akool 1
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 5
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 220
Hooded Crane Grus monacha 1
Red-crowned Crane G. japonensis 2
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus 20
Eurasian/Far Eastern Curlew Numenius arquata/madagascariensis 1
Dunlin Calidris alpina 170
Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 6
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos 3
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 30
Saunders’s Gull Chroicocephalus saundersi 1
Black-headed Gull C. ridibundus 2
Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris 2
Mew Gull L. canus 2
Vega Gull L. vegae vegae/L. v. mongolicus 15
Lesser Black-backed Gull L. fuscus heuglini 2
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 1
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 1
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 2
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus 1
Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus 2
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 20
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 5 singing
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 50
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 5
Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus 1
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 4
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 4
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 15
Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris 2
Black-collared Starling Gracupica nigricollis 3
White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus 4
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 30
Pale Thrush Turdus pallidus 4
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 4
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 1
Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva 1
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 10
Eastern Yellow Wagtail Motacilla tschutschensis taivana 1
White Wagtail M. alba 12
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 2
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens japonicus 10
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata 8
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 2
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 5