Spoon-billed Sandpiper, Yangkou, Rudong, Jiangsu, 23 Aug. 2011. Photos by Craig Brelsford.

Spoon-billed Sandpiper at Nanhui

Editor’s note: The photos above record the moment when I first beheld Spoon-billed Sandpiper. The date was 23 Aug. 2011; the place was Yangkou, a major stopover point for Spoon-billed Sandpiper in Jiangsu; and the bird was this adult, still with a considerable amount of its rufous breeding plumage. Since then I have had numerous encounters with the critically endangered species. The most recent was Thurs. 3 Nov. 2016, when I achieved one of my most sustained views (nearly 30 minutes) and first view in Shanghai of one of the rarest vertebrates on the planet. In this post, I describe the Nanhui meeting with Spoon-billed Sandpiper, and I decorate the post with photos I have taken of the species over the years. — Craig Brelsford

On Thurs. 3 Nov. 2016 Elaine Du and I found Spoon-billed Sandpiper at Nanhui, the coastal birding site in Pudong. A single SBS was associating with a flock of 2600 waders in mud near the entrance to the defunct nature reserve. The SBS site is 4.3 km north of the Holiday Inn, and its coordinates are 30.921616, 121.969776.

On 3 Oct. 2014 at Yangkou, I achieved rare flight shots of Spoon-billed Sandpiper.
On 3 Oct. 2014 at Yangkou, I achieved rare flight shots of Spoon-billed Sandpiper.

I have been viewing Spoon-billed Sandpiper a few times each year since 2011. Since 2013, Elaine has been with me. We know what to look for, and at this time of year when we see a large flock of small waders, the possibility of finding Spoon-billed Sandpiper is always on our mind.

Seated, as is my wont, on the access road, my Swarovski ATX-95 spotting scope atop my tripod in front of me, I was scanning the flock of 2600 waders, looking for anomalies. The great majority (1920) of the birds were Dunlin, with Kentish Plover (620) the other major component.

On 6 Oct. 2014, this Spoon-billed Sandpiper was a lonely fellow in a dry roost containing hundreds of waders.
On 6 Oct. 2014 at Yangkou, this Spoon-billed Sandpiper was a lonely fellow in a dry roost containing hundreds of waders.

I saw a bird that was one of a kind. It was not associating with Kentish Plover or Dunlin. Unlike the plovers and Dunlin, which were resting and preening, the bird I was viewing was feeding. It was moving quickly and covering much ground.

The constant movement, like a wind-up toy, reminded me of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper I have viewed at Yangkou and Dongtai. The speed at which the bird ran fit the pattern, as did the average length of sprint. The bird would occasionally take a short flight. When it flew, the bird showed the white sides to its uppertail coverts.

Another look at the winter-plumage SBS of 6 Oct. 2014.
Another look at the winter-plumage Spoon-billed Sandpiper of 6 Oct. 2014.

The foregoing did not prove Spoon-billed Sandpiper–other species such as Red-necked Stint share some of those characters. What I needed was a close view. Unfortunately, the galaxy of shorebirds was spread out between me and the Spoon-billed Sandpiper, and the SBS was obviously shying away. Finally the bird moved to within 150 meters of the road. Even through the heat haze, the scope brought home the trademark spatulate bill.

On 14 Sept. 2014, on the mudflats at Yangkou Elaine and I found this Spoon-billed Sandpiper. It is an adult, with traces of the rufous breeding plumage still visible on the face and throat.
On 14 Sept. 2014, on the mudflats at Yangkou, Elaine and I found this Spoon-billed Sandpiper. It is an adult, with traces of the rufous breeding plumage still visible on the face and throat.

It is only somewhat surprising that Spoon-billed Sandpiper should be at Nanhui in early November. First, Spoon-billed Sandpiper quit the stopover sites in Jiangsu around the end of October and early November. The Nanhui bird may have been one of them, and it may have stopped off in Shanghai for a quick refueling break as it heads south.

Second, as more and more of the Chinese coast is gobbled up by development, places such as the wetland at Nanhui, abandoned and gravely threatened as it is, take on greater and greater importance to migrating shorebirds. With so few places left for them, migrating waders pool in whatever hospitable area they can find. Small wonder, then, that in recent weeks the abandoned reserve has yielded Endangered Nordmann’s Greenshank and ultra-rarities such as Pomarine Jaeger and that the site is depended on by about 2 percent of the world’s Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill.

I found a Spoon-billed Sandpiper on 19 Sept. 2012 at Yangkou. Here is a look at the spatulate bill.
I found a Spoon-billed Sandpiper on 19 Sept. 2012 at Yangkou. Here is a look at its spatulate bill.

IUCN lists Spoon-billed Sandpiper as Critically Endangered. Only 500 to 800 of these birds are thought to exist. Excessive development along the Chinese coast is one of the main causes of its decline. Last month, in Will the Spoon Survive?, I discussed coastal development and the future of Spoon-billed Sandpiper.

If you care about Spoon-billed Sandpiper and would like to help, then the RSPB would like to hear from you.

71 SPECIES AT SHANGHAI SITES

On Wed. 2 Nov., Thurs. 3 Nov., and Fri. 4 Nov. 2016, Elaine and I noted 73 species at Zhongshan Park (31.221888, 121.420066) in inner-city Shanghai, the sod farm (31.112586, 121.824742) near Pudong Airport, and Nanhui. On Thursday we had Endangered Great Knot in the defunct nature reserve at Nanhui along with Ruff, Saunders’s Gull, Common Pochard, and Greater Scaup. 55 of our 59 Black-faced Spoonbill were in the abandoned reserve.

Nanhui also gave us season’s first Chinese Penduline Tit, Chestnut-eared Bunting, and Pallas’s Reed Bunting. We spotted a beautiful adult male Bull-headed Shrike, and Eurasian Wryneck was near Microforest 1. On Thursday we had the pleasure of working the wetland and microforests with local birder kaca, recent discoverer of Shanghai’s first Crow-billed Drongo.

FURTHER THOUGHTS ON ‘SAVE NANHUI’

On Thurs. 3 Nov. I found these 4 Black-faced Spoonbill flying over Microforest 4. I found another 55 in the abandoned nature reserve.
On Thurs. 3 Nov. I found these 4 Black-faced Spoonbill flying over Microforest 4. I found another 55 in the abandoned nature reserve.

Earlier this week I published Save the Nanhui Wetland Reserve! On Thursday at the defunct reserve, I saw yet again more than 50 Black-faced Spoonbill–by some measures, 2 percent of the world population of that endangered species. And I got to thinking again.

In many countries, once it was established that 2 percent of the world population of an endangered bird was relying on a site, then it would be game over, proclaim the site a nature reserve–no matter how valuable the land was. The rhetorical question would be, “To what better use could the land possibly be put?”

The local people would forgo the cash that would have been generated by the development of the land. They would say, “We can’t develop every last square meter, after all.” They would cradle Black-faced Spoonbill to their bosom.

At the site, further discoveries would be made. Nordmann’s Greenshank and Spoon-billed Sandpiper, two critically endangered species, also use the site. Great Knot, yet another endangered species, was there Thursday. Rarities like Pomarine Jaeger sometimes appear.

Those species would find refuge in Earth’s largest city. They would have a permanent base in mainland Pudong. They would be the pride of Nanhui.

The easily accessible site would become internationally known, like Mai Po in Hong Kong and Sungei Buloh in Singapore. Tourists would make trips to Shanghai–and on their visa application, under “purpose of visit,” write, “birdwatching.” Elementary schools would take field trips there. The kids would love it!

The current reality is this. When I first started going to Nanhui back in 2008, Black-faced Spoonbill almost always were hundreds of meters away. They would occasionally appear in the canal at the base of the sea wall. If you so much as stopped your car, they would stop feeding. If you opened your door, they would fly a long way away.

Now, in the defunct nature reserve, many of them are feeding right next to the access road. When you stop your car, they keep feeding. When you open your door, they fly 30 m back and start feeding again.

Have spoonbills lost their fear of man? Or, amid the shrinking of the local habitat, are they so desperate for a feed that they have lost their instinct to flee?

Day Lists
Lists are generated on eBird then adjusted to comport with my first reference, the IOC World Bird List.

List 1 of 1 for Wed. 2 Nov. 2016 (15 species). Zhongshan Park (Zhōngshān Gōngyuán [中山公园]; 31.221888, 121.420066), urban green space in Changning District, Shanghai. Partly cloudy. Low 9° C, high 16° C. Visibility 10 km. Wind NNE 11 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 61 (moderate). Sunrise 06:11, sunset 17:03. WED 02 NOV 2016 12:15-13:45. Craig Brelsford & Elaine Du.

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 9
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 1
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 60
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 1
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 1
Chinese Blackbird T. mandarinus 20
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 1
Oriental Magpie-Robin Copsychus saularis 4
Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana 1
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 6
Mugimaki Flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki 3
White Wagtail Motacilla alba leucopsis 2
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 40
Chinese Grosbeak Eophona migratoria 7
Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami 12

List 1 of 2 for Thurs. 3 Nov. 2016 (7 species). Birds noted at sod farm south of Pudong International Airport (31.112586, 121.824742), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Sunny and clear. Low 10° C, high 16° C. Humidity 46%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind ENE 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 155 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:12, sunset 17:03. THU 03 NOV 2016 09:20-09:50. Craig Brelsford & Elaine Du.

Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 3
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 5
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 3
Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus 8
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 2
Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus 2
Buff-bellied Pipit A. rubescens japonicus 4

List 2 of 2 for Thurs. 3 Nov. 2016 (64 species)

Eyebrowed Thrush feeding in Microforest 4, Nanhui, 3 Nov. 2016.
Eyebrowed Thrush feeding in Microforest 4, Nanhui, 3 Nov. 2016.

Birds noted around Pudong Nanhui Dongtan Wetland (Pǔdōng Nánhuì Dōngtān Shīdì [浦东南汇东滩湿地]; 30.920507, 121.973159), Pudong, Shanghai, China. Sunny and clear. Low 10° C, high 16° C. Humidity 46%. Visibility: 10 km. Wind ENE 6 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 155 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:12, sunset 17:03. THU 03 NOV 2016 10:15-16:15. Craig Brelsford & Elaine Du.

Gadwall Anas strepera 3
Eastern Spot-billed Duck A. zonorhyncha 140
Northern Shoveler A. clypeata 2
Eurasian Teal A. crecca 7
Common Pochard Aythya ferina 1
Greater Scaup A. marila 1
Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus 1
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis 47
Great Cormorant Eurasian Phalacrocorax carbo 40
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea 55
Great Egret A. alba 12
Little Egret Egretta garzetta 60
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 6
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia 8
Black-faced Spoonbill P. minor 59
Eastern Buzzard Buteo japonicus 1
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra 15
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta 40
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola 30
Lesser/Greater Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus/leschenaultii 50
Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus 620
Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris 4
Ruff C. pugnax 2
Dunlin C. alpina 1930
Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 1
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus 60
Common Greenshank T. nebularia 40
Marsh Sandpiper T. stagnatilis 31
Common Redshank T. totanus 5
Saunders’s Gull Chroicocephalus saundersi 1
Black-headed Gull C. ridibundus 25
Feral Pigeon (Rock Dove) Columba livia 4
Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis 16
Spotted Dove S. chinensis 1
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops 1
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla 1
Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus 1
Long-tailed Shrike L. schach 14
Eurasian/Oriental Skylark Alauda arvensis/gulgula 4
Chinese Penduline Tit Remiz consobrinus 40
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 10
Goldcrest Regulus regulus 1
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus 4
Plain Prinia Prinia inornata 6
Reed Parrotbill Paradoxornis heudei 4
Vinous-throated Parrotbill Sinosuthora webbiana 12
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 4
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 3
Japanese Thrush T. cardis 2
Eyebrowed Thrush T. obscurus 1
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 4
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 6
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 14
Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus 14
Stejneger’s Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri 1
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 50
White Wagtail Motacilla alba 12
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi 1
Red-throated Pipit A. cervinus 2
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla 26
Chestnut-eared Bunting Emberiza fucata 1
Yellow-throated Bunting E. elegans 7
Black-faced Bunting E. spodocephala 19
Pallas’s Reed Bunting E. pallasi 1

List 1 of 1 for Fri. 4 Nov. 2016 (16 species)

On Friday at Zhongshan Park Shanghai Birding member Wāng Jīnlóng (汪金龙) achieved this image of a White's Thrush drinking from a cavity in a tree. I was standing beside Mr. Wang when he got the shot. More than a century old, Zhongshan Park contains many trees 30 m tall and higher. It's a kind of old-growth forest in the middle of Earth's largest city.
On Friday at Zhongshan Park Shanghai Birding member Wāng Jīnlóng (汪金龙) achieved this image of a White’s Thrush drinking from a cavity high in a tree. I was standing beside Mr. Wang when he got the shot. More than a century old, Zhongshan Park contains many trees 25 m tall and higher. It’s a small-scale old-growth forest in the middle of Earth’s largest city.

Zhongshan Park (Zhōngshān Gōngyuán [中山公园]; 31.221888, 121.420066), urban green space in Changning District, Shanghai. Sunny. Low 10° C, high 21° C. Humidity 51% Visibility 10 km. Wind S 15 km/h. PM2.5 AQI: 132 (unhealthful). Sunrise 06:13, sunset 17:02. WED 02 NOV 2016 14:00-16:00. Craig Brelsford.

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis 7
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis 1
Japanese Tit Parus minor 2
Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach 1
Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis 60
Pallas’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus 2
White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea 1
Grey-backed Thrush Turdus hortulorum 1
Chinese Blackbird T. mandarinus 20
Dusky Thrush T. eunomus 1
Pale Thrush T. pallidus 1
Oriental Magpie-Robin Copsychus saularis 2
Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus 5
White Wagtail Motacilla alba leucopsis 2
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus 40
Chinese Grosbeak Eophona migratoria 3

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Craig Brelsford

Craig Brelsford lives in Shanghai, where he runs shanghaibirding.com and studies Chinese at the Shanghai University of Engineering Sciences.

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